Short-Term Memory, Inhibition, and Attention in Developmental Stuttering: A Meta-Analysis Purpose This study presents a meta-analytic review of differences in verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and attention between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Method Electronic databases and reference sections of articles were searched for candidate studies that examined verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   July 13, 2018
Short-Term Memory, Inhibition, and Attention in Developmental Stuttering: A Meta-Analysis
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Levi C. Ofoe
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Julie D. Anderson
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Katerina Ntourou
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Levi C. Ofoe: Lcofoe@indiana.edu
  • Katerina Ntourou is now at the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
    Katerina Ntourou is now at the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.×
  • Editor-in-Chief: Julie Liss
    Editor-in-Chief: Julie Liss×
  • Editor: Bharath Chandrasekaran
    Editor: Bharath Chandrasekaran×
Article Information
Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   July 13, 2018
Short-Term Memory, Inhibition, and Attention in Developmental Stuttering: A Meta-Analysis
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, July 2018, Vol. 61, 1626-1648. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0372
History: Received September 29, 2017 , Revised February 7, 2018 , Accepted March 26, 2018
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, July 2018, Vol. 61, 1626-1648. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0372
History: Received September 29, 2017; Revised February 7, 2018; Accepted March 26, 2018

Purpose This study presents a meta-analytic review of differences in verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and attention between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS).

Method Electronic databases and reference sections of articles were searched for candidate studies that examined verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and attention using behavioral and/or parent report measures. Twenty-nine studies met the eligibility criteria, which included, among other things, children between the ages of 3 and 18 years and the availability of quantitative data for effect size calculations. Data were extracted, coded, and analyzed, with the magnitude of the difference between the 2 groups of children being estimated using Hedge's g (Hedges & Olkin, 1985).

Results Based on the random-effects model (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004), findings revealed that CWS scored lower than CWNS on measures of nonword repetition (Hedges' g = −0.62), particularly at lengths of 2 and 3 syllables (Hedges' g = −0.62 and − 0.50, respectively), and forward span (Hedges' g = −0.40). Analyses further revealed that the parents of CWS rated their children as having weaker inhibition (Hedges' g = −0.44) and attentional focus/persistence (Hedges' g = −0.36) skills than the parents of CWNS, but there were no significant differences between CWS and CWNS in behavioral measures of inhibition and attention.

Conclusion The present findings were taken to suggest that cognitive processes are important variables associated with developmental stuttering.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a grant awarded to the second author from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institute of Health (RO1DC012517).
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