Children With Dyslexia Benefit From Orthographic Facilitation During Spoken Word Learning Purpose Orthographic facilitation describes the phenomenon in which a spoken word is produced more accurately when its corresponding written word is present during learning. We examined the orthographic facilitation effect in children with dyslexia because they have poor learning and recall of spoken words. We hypothesized that including orthography during ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 08, 2018
Children With Dyslexia Benefit From Orthographic Facilitation During Spoken Word Learning
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lauren S. Baron
    MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA
  • Tiffany P. Hogan
    MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA
  • Mary Alt
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Shelley Gray
    Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Kathryn L. Cabbage
    Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
  • Samuel Green
    Arizona State University, Tempe
  • Nelson Cowan
    University of Missouri, Columbia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • In memory of our colleague and collaborator, Samuel (Sam) Green, who passed away during the preparation of this manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge his contributions to the research.
    In memory of our colleague and collaborator, Samuel (Sam) Green, who passed away during the preparation of this manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge his contributions to the research.×
  • Correspondence to Tiffany P. Hogan: thogan@mghihp.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond
    Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond×
  • Editor: Megan Dunn Davison
    Editor: Megan Dunn Davison×
Article Information
Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 08, 2018
Children With Dyslexia Benefit From Orthographic Facilitation During Spoken Word Learning
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2018, Vol. 61, 2002-2014. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0336
History: Received September 5, 2017 , Revised December 7, 2017 , Accepted March 21, 2018
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2018, Vol. 61, 2002-2014. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0336
History: Received September 5, 2017; Revised December 7, 2017; Accepted March 21, 2018

Purpose Orthographic facilitation describes the phenomenon in which a spoken word is produced more accurately when its corresponding written word is present during learning. We examined the orthographic facilitation effect in children with dyslexia because they have poor learning and recall of spoken words. We hypothesized that including orthography during spoken word learning would facilitate learning and recall.

Method Children with dyslexia and children with typical development (n = 46 per group), 7–9 years old, were matched for grade and nonverbal intelligence. Across 4 blocks of exposure in 1 session, children learned pairings between 4 spoken pseudowords and novel semantic referents in a modified paired-associate learning task. Two of the pairings were presented with orthography present, and 2 were presented with orthography absent. Recall of newly learned spoken words was assessed using a naming task.

Results Both groups showed orthographic facilitation during learning and naming. During learning, both groups paired pseudowords and referents more accurately when orthography was present. During naming, children with typical development showed a large orthographic facilitation effect that increased across blocks. For children with dyslexia, this effect was present initially but then plateaued.

Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that children with dyslexia benefit from orthographic facilitation during spoken word learning. These findings have direct implications for teaching spoken vocabulary to children with dyslexia.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health NIDCD Grant R01 DC010784 (PI: Shelley Gray). We are deeply grateful to the staff, research associates, school administrators, teachers, children, and families who participated. Key personnel included (in alphabetical order) Shara Brinkley, Gary Carstensen, Cecilia Figueroa, Karen Guilmette, Trudy Kuo, Bjorg LeSueur, Annelise Pesch, and Jean Zimmer. Many students also contributed to this work including (in alphabetical order) Genesis Arizmendi, Alexander Brown, Nora Schlesinger, Nisha Talanki, and Hui-Chun Yang.
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