The Receptive–Expressive Gap in English Narratives of Spanish–English Bilingual Children With and Without Language Impairment Purpose First, we sought to extend our knowledge of second language (L2) receptive compared to expressive narrative skills in bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Second, we sought to explore whether narrative receptive and expressive performance in bilingual children's L2 differed based on the type of contextual ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 19, 2018
The Receptive–Expressive Gap in English Narratives of Spanish–English Bilingual Children With and Without Language Impairment
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Todd A. Gibson
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
  • Elizabeth D. Peña
    University of California, Irvine
  • Lisa M. Bedore
    The University of Texas at Austin
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Todd A. Gibson: toddandrewgibson@gmail.com
  • Editor: Sean Redmond
    Editor: Sean Redmond×
  • Associate Editor: Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird
    Associate Editor: Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Language Disorders / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 19, 2018
The Receptive–Expressive Gap in English Narratives of Spanish–English Bilingual Children With and Without Language Impairment
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2018, Vol. 61, 1381-1392. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-16-0432
History: Received November 21, 2016 , Revised May 9, 2017 , Accepted February 2, 2018
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2018, Vol. 61, 1381-1392. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-16-0432
History: Received November 21, 2016; Revised May 9, 2017; Accepted February 2, 2018

Purpose First, we sought to extend our knowledge of second language (L2) receptive compared to expressive narrative skills in bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Second, we sought to explore whether narrative receptive and expressive performance in bilingual children's L2 differed based on the type of contextual support.

Method In a longitudinal group study, 20 Spanish–English bilingual children with PLI were matched by sex, age, nonverbal IQ score, and language exposure to 20 bilingual peers with typical development and administered the Test of Narrative Language (Gillam & Pearson, 2004) in English (their L2) at kindergarten and first grade.

Results Standard scores were significantly lower for bilingual children with PLI than those without PLI. An L2 receptive–expressive gap existed for bilingual children with PLI at kindergarten but dissipated by first grade. Using single pictures during narrative generation compared to multiple pictures during narrative generation or no pictures during narrative retell appeared to minimize the presence of a receptive–expressive gap.

Conclusions In early stages of L2 learning, bilingual children with PLI have an L2 receptive–expressive gap, but their typical development peers do not. Using a single picture during narrative generation might be advantageous for this population because it minimizes a receptive–expressive gap.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Grant R01DC007439 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, which was awarded to D. Kimbrough Oller. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments on this manuscript. We are grateful to the families that participated in the study. We would also like to thank Anita Méndez Pérez and Chad Bingham for their assistance with coordination of data collection, the interviewers for their assistance with collecting the data for this project, and the school districts for allowing us access to collect the data. This report does not necessarily reflect the views or policy of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
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