Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish–English and Asian Indian–English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures Purpose Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), among the most widely used global screens of adult cognitive status, is affected by demographic variables including age, education, and ethnicity. This study extends prior research by examining the specific effects of bilingualism on MMSE performance. Method Sixty independent community-dwelling ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 17, 2018
Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish–English and Asian Indian–English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lisa H. Milman
    Department of Communicative Disorders & Deaf Education, Utah State University, Logan
  • Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah
    Department of Hearing & Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park
  • Chris D. Corcoran
    Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Utah State University, Logan
  • Deanna M. Damele
    Department of Communicative Disorders & Deaf Education, Utah State University, Logan
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Lisa H. Milman: lisa.milman@usu.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond
    Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond×
  • Editor: Swathi Kiran
    Editor: Swathi Kiran×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 17, 2018
Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish–English and Asian Indian–English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2018, Vol. 61, 847-856. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0021
History: Received January 17, 2017 , Revised August 6, 2017 , Accepted November 14, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2018, Vol. 61, 847-856. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0021
History: Received January 17, 2017; Revised August 6, 2017; Accepted November 14, 2017

Purpose Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), among the most widely used global screens of adult cognitive status, is affected by demographic variables including age, education, and ethnicity. This study extends prior research by examining the specific effects of bilingualism on MMSE performance.

Method Sixty independent community-dwelling monolingual and bilingual adults were recruited from eastern and western regions of the United States in this cross-sectional group study. Independent sample t tests were used to compare 2 bilingual groups (Spanish–English and Asian Indian–English) with matched monolingual speakers on the MMSE, demographically adjusted MMSE scores, MMSE item scores, and a nonverbal cognitive measure. Regression analyses were also performed to determine whether language proficiency predicted MMSE performance in both groups of bilingual speakers.

Results Group differences were evident on the MMSE, on demographically adjusted MMSE scores, and on a small subset of individual MMSE items. Scores on a standardized screen of language proficiency predicted a significant proportion of the variance in the MMSE scores of both bilingual groups.

Conclusions Bilingual speakers demonstrated distinct performance profiles on the MMSE. Results suggest that supplementing the MMSE with a language screen, administering a nonverbal measure, and/or evaluating item-based patterns of performance may assist with test interpretation for this population.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Grant Program for Projects on Multicultural Activities), awarded to Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah and Lisa H. Milman.
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