False Belief Development in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Compared With Peers With Normal Hearing Purpose This study investigates false belief (FB) understanding in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) compared with children with normal hearing (CNH) at ages 5 and 6 years and at 2nd grade. Research with this population has theoretical significance, given that the early auditory–linguistic experiences of CHH are less ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   December 06, 2017
False Belief Development in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Compared With Peers With Normal Hearing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elizabeth A. Walker
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Sophie E. Ambrose
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Jacob Oleson
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Mary Pat Moeller
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Elizabeth A. Walker: elizabeth-walker@uiowa.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond
    Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond×
  • Editor: Geralyn Timler
    Editor: Geralyn Timler×
Article Information
Development / Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   December 06, 2017
False Belief Development in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Compared With Peers With Normal Hearing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0121
History: Received April 4, 2017 , Revised July 5, 2017 , Accepted July 27, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0121
History: Received April 4, 2017; Revised July 5, 2017; Accepted July 27, 2017

Purpose This study investigates false belief (FB) understanding in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) compared with children with normal hearing (CNH) at ages 5 and 6 years and at 2nd grade. Research with this population has theoretical significance, given that the early auditory–linguistic experiences of CHH are less restricted compared with children who are deaf but not as complete as those of CNH.

Method Participants included CHH and CNH who had completed FB tasks as part of a larger multicenter, longitudinal study on outcomes of children with mild-to-severe hearing loss. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were analyzed.

Results At age 5 years, CHH demonstrated significant delays in FB understanding relative to CNH. Both hearing status and spoken-language abilities contributed to FB performance in 5-year-olds. A subgroup of CHH showed protracted delays at 6 years, suggesting that some CHH are at risk for longer term delays in FB understanding. By 2nd grade, performance on 1st- and 2nd-order FBs did not differ between CHH and CNH.

Conclusions Preschool-age CHH are at risk for delays in understanding others' beliefs, which has consequences for their social interactions and pragmatic communication. Research related to FB in children with hearing loss has the potential to inform our understanding of mechanisms that support social–cognitive development, including the roles of language and conversational access.

Acknowledgments
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01DC009560 (coprincipal investigators, J. Bruce Tomblin, The University of Iowa, and Mary Pat Moeller, Boys Town National Research Hospital) and R01DC013591 (principal investigator, Ryan W. McCreery). The content of this project is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders of the National Institutes of Health. Several people provided support, assistance, and feedback at various points in the project, including Peter de Villiers, J. Bruce Tomblin, Wendy Fick, Sarah Al-Salim, Lauren Bricker, Alexandra Redfern, and Marlea O'Brien. Special thanks go to the examiners at The University of Iowa, Boys Town National Research Hospital, and The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, as well as the families and children who participated in the research.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access