Influence of Altered Auditory Feedback on Oral–Nasal Balance in Speech Purpose This study explored the role of auditory feedback in the regulation of oral–nasal balance in speech. Method Twenty typical female speakers wore a Nasometer 6450 (KayPentax) headset and headphones while continuously repeating a sentence with oral and nasal sounds. Oral–nasal balance was quantified with nasalance scores. The ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 09, 2017
Influence of Altered Auditory Feedback on Oral–Nasal Balance in Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Gillian de Boer
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Tim Bressmann
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Gillian de Boer: Gillian.deboer@mail.utoronto.ca
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Balance & Balance Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 09, 2017
Influence of Altered Auditory Feedback on Oral–Nasal Balance in Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, November 2017, Vol. 60, 3135-3143. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0390
History: Received October 6, 2016 , Revised February 22, 2017 , Accepted June 15, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, November 2017, Vol. 60, 3135-3143. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0390
History: Received October 6, 2016; Revised February 22, 2017; Accepted June 15, 2017

Purpose This study explored the role of auditory feedback in the regulation of oral–nasal balance in speech.

Method Twenty typical female speakers wore a Nasometer 6450 (KayPentax) headset and headphones while continuously repeating a sentence with oral and nasal sounds. Oral–nasal balance was quantified with nasalance scores. The signals from 2 additional oral and nasal microphones were played back to the participants through the headphones. The relative loudness of the nasal channel in the mix was gradually changed so that the speakers heard themselves as more or less nasal. An additional amplitude control group of 9 female speakers completed the same task while hearing themselves louder or softer in the headphones.

Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance of the mean nasalance scores of the stimulus sentence at baseline, minimum, and maximum nasal feedback conditions demonstrated a significant effect of the nasal feedback condition. Post hoc analyses found that the mean nasalance scores were lowest for the maximum nasal feedback condition. The scores of the minimum nasal feedback condition were significantly higher than 2 of the 3 baseline feedback conditions. The amplitude control group did not show any effects of volume changes on nasalance scores.

Conclusions Increased nasal feedback led to a compensatory adjustment in the opposite direction, confirming that oral–nasal balance is regulated by auditory feedback. However, a lack of nasal feedback did not lead to a consistent compensatory response of similar magnitude.

Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank Sheetal Ramaprasad, Bianca Cohn, Yaxin Liu, Roubina Sarkissian, Marika Loy, and Karalina Lovkina for their assistance in extracting the nasalance scores. The authors wish to thank Dr. Pascal van Lieshout and Dr. Kiran Kulkarni for their help and guidance with this research project. We also thank two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor Hans-Georg Bosshardt for their constructive and thorough reviews. Parts of this article were presented in June 2016 at the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistic Association Conference, Halifax, NS.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access