The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort Purpose For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method This study was nested in the Early Language in ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 17, 2017
The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elaina Kefalianos
    Department of Audiology and Speech Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Centre for Neuroscience of Speech, The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Mark Onslow
    Australian Stuttering Research Centre, University of Sydney, Australia
  • Ann Packman
    Australian Stuttering Research Centre, University of Sydney, Australia
  • Adam Vogel
    Department of Audiology and Speech Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Centre for Neuroscience of Speech, The University of Melbourne, Australia
    Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Germany
  • Angela Pezic
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • Fiona Mensah
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia
    Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • Laura Conway
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Edith Bavin
    School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  • Susan Block
    School of Human Communication Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  • Sheena Reilly
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia
    Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Elaina Kefalianos: ekefalianos@unimelb.edu.au
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 17, 2017
The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2017, Vol. 60, 2828-2839. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0205
History: Received May 23, 2016 , Revised December 1, 2016 , Accepted June 1, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2017, Vol. 60, 2828-2839. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0205
History: Received May 23, 2016; Revised December 1, 2016; Accepted June 1, 2017

Purpose For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years.

Method This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and environmental measures and first-degree relative history of stuttering. Comorbidities examined at 7 years included temperament, language, nonverbal cognition, and health-related quality of life.

Results The recovery rate by the age of 7 years was 65%. Girls with stronger communication skills at the age of 2 years had higher odds of recovery (adjusted OR = 7.1, 95% CI [1.3, 37.9], p = .02), but similar effects were not evident for boys (adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI [0.3, 1.1], p = .10). At the age of 7 years, children who had recovered from stuttering were more likely to have stronger language skills than children whose stuttering persisted (p = .05). No evident differences were identified on other outcomes including nonverbal cognition, temperament, and parent-reported quality of life.

Conclusion Overall, findings suggested that there may be associations between language ability and recovery from stuttering. Subsequent research is needed to explore the directionality of this relationship.

Acknowledgments
The Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) was supported by grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC Project Grant 436958 and 1041947) and the Australian Research Council (Grant DP0984833). Murdoch Childrens Research Institute research is supported by the Victorian government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program. The following authors were supported by the NHMRC during the study: Reilly (Practitioner Fellowship 491210), Onslow and Packman (Program Grant 633007), Vogel (Career Development Fellowship 1082910), and Fiona Mensah (Early Career Fellowship 1037449 and Career Development Fellowship 1111160). All authors have support from Murdoch Childrens Research Institute for the submitted work. Thank you to Patricia Eadie, Professor Melissa Wake, and Associate Professor Ross Menzies for their review of the article. Thank you also to the ELVS research group for their contribution to the study.
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