A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes Among Late Talkers Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method We entered carefully selected search terms into the ... Review Article
Newly Published
Review Article  |   September 15, 2017
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes Among Late Talkers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Evelyn L. Fisher
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Evelyn L. Fisher: efisher7@student.gsu.edu.
  • Editor: Sean Redmond
    Editor: Sean Redmond×
  • Associate Editor: Emma Hayiou-Thomas
    Associate Editor: Emma Hayiou-Thomas×
Article Information
Special Populations / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Language Disorders / Newly Published / Review Article
Review Article   |   September 15, 2017
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes Among Late Talkers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-16-0310
History: Received August 2, 2016 , Revised February 1, 2017 , Accepted March 31, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-16-0310
History: Received August 2, 2016; Revised February 1, 2017; Accepted March 31, 2017

Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers?

Method We entered carefully selected search terms into the following electronic databases: Communication & Mass Media Complete, ERIC, Medline, PsycEXTRA, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, and PsycINFO. We conducted a separate, random-effects model meta-analysis for each individual predictor that was used in a minimum of 5 studies. We also tested potential moderators of the relationship between predictors and outcomes using metaregression and subgroup analysis. Last, we conducted publication-bias and sensitivity analyses.

Results We identified 20 samples, comprising 2,134 children, in a systematic review. According to the results of the meta-analyses, significant predictors of expressive-language outcomes included toddlerhood expressive-vocabulary size, receptive language, and socioeconomic status. Nonsignificant predictors included phrase speech, gender, and family history.

Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first synthesis of the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using meta-analysis. Our findings clarify the contributions of several constructs to outcomes and highlight the importance of early receptive language to expressive-language development.

Supplemental Materials https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5313454

Acknowledgments
This review article was a general examination project submitted by Evelyn L. Fisher to the Department of Psychology at Georgia State University, Atlanta. I thank Nicole Lim for her participation in abstract review and measure coding and Gordon Warren for his input on statistical methods. I also thank MaryAnn Romski, Rose Sevcik, and Tricia King for their feedback on the project. Last, I thank the many investigators who provided supplementary information about their studies: Dorothy Bishop, Cecyle Carson, Susan Ellis Weismer, Heidi Feldman, Anne Fernald, Pamela Hadley, Marcia Kurs-Lasky, Joanne Lee, Penny Levickis, Virginia Marchman, Kakia Petinou, Hugo Peyre, Leslie Rescorla, Jasmina Vuksanovic, and the Early Language in Victoria Study team members, especially Fiona Mensah, Sheena Reilly, and Edith Bavin. Without their responsiveness and support, this project would not have been possible.
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