Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds Purpose Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal ... Research Article
Research Article  |   September 18, 2017
Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Gabriel E. Galindo
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
  • Sean D. Peterson
    Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • Byron D. Erath
    Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY
  • Christian Castro
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
    School of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile
  • Robert E. Hillman
    Center for Laryngeal Surgery & Voice Rehabilitation, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
    MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA
  • Matías Zañartu
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Matías Zañartu: matias.zanartu@usm.cl
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Jack Jiang
    Associate Editor: Jack Jiang×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   September 18, 2017
Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 2017, Vol. 60, 2452-2471. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0412
History: Received October 29, 2016 , Revised March 7, 2017 , Accepted April 19, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 2017, Vol. 60, 2452-2471. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0412
History: Received October 29, 2016; Revised March 7, 2017; Accepted April 19, 2017

Purpose Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production.

Method A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback.

Results The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output.

Conclusion Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma.

Acknowledgments
Gabriel E. Galindo acknowledges scholarships from the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María. This work was supported by Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica Grants FONDECYT 1151077, BASAL FB0008, and MEC 80150034 (awarded to Matías Zañartu), Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation Grant ER13-09-269 (awarded to Sean D. Peterson), and National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants R331DC011588 and P50DC015446 (awarded to Robert E. Hillman). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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