Early Postimplant Speech Perception and Language Skills Predict Long-Term Language and Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation Purpose We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes. Method Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear implants, implanted at ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 16, 2017
Early Postimplant Speech Perception and Language Skills Predict Long-Term Language and Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Cynthia R. Hunter
    Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • William G. Kronenberger
    Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
    Riley Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
    DeVault Otologic Research Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Irina Castellanos
    Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus
  • David B. Pisoni
    Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
    Riley Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Cynthia R. Hunter: cynthunt@indiana.edu
  • Editor: Frederick Gallun
    Editor: Frederick Gallun×
  • Associate Editor: Amy Lederberg
    Associate Editor: Amy Lederberg×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 16, 2017
Early Postimplant Speech Perception and Language Skills Predict Long-Term Language and Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2017, Vol. 60, 2321-2336. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-H-16-0152
History: Received April 13, 2016 , Revised August 24, 2016 , Accepted February 21, 2017
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2017, Vol. 60, 2321-2336. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-H-16-0152
History: Received April 13, 2016; Revised August 24, 2016; Accepted February 21, 2017

Purpose We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes.

Method Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear implants, implanted at an average age of 3.4 years, completed measures of speech perception, language, and executive functioning an average of 14.4 years postimplantation. Speech perception and language skills measured in the 1st and 2nd years postimplantation and open-set word recognition measured in the 3rd and 4th years postimplantation were obtained from a research database in order to assess predictive relations with long-term outcomes.

Results Speech perception and language skills at 6 and 18 months postimplantation were correlated with long-term outcomes for language, verbal working memory, and parent-reported executive functioning. Open-set word recognition was correlated with early speech perception and language skills and long-term speech perception and language outcomes. Hierarchical regressions showed that early speech perception and language skills at 6 months postimplantation and growth in these skills from 6 to 18 months both accounted for substantial variance in long-term outcomes for language and verbal working memory that was not explained by conventional demographic and hearing factors.

Conclusion Speech perception and language skills measured very early postimplantation, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language, may be clinically relevant markers of long-term language and neurocognitive outcomes in users of cochlear implants.

Supplemental materials https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5216200

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants R01 DC009581 and T32 DC00012 awarded to David B. Pisoni and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Grant TL1 TR001107 awarded to Irina Castellanos. We thank Bethany Colson and Shirley Henning for administering speech, language, and neurocognitive tasks.
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