Velopharyngeal Status of Stop Consonants and Vowels Produced by Young Children With and Without Repaired Cleft Palate at 12, 14, and 18 Months of Age: A Preliminary Analysis Purpose The objective was to determine velopharyngeal (VP) status of stop consonants and vowels produced by young children with repaired cleft palate (CP) and typically developing (TD) children from 12 to 18 months of age. Method Nasal ram pressure (NRP) was monitored in 9 children (5 boys, 4 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 10, 2017
Velopharyngeal Status of Stop Consonants and Vowels Produced by Young Children With and Without Repaired Cleft Palate at 12, 14, and 18 Months of Age: A Preliminary Analysis
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Marziye Eshghi
    Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Linda D. Vallino
    Jefferson Medical College, Wilmington, DE
    Craniofacial Outcomes Research Laboratory, Center for Pediatric Auditory and Speech Sciences, Nemours/Alfred I. DuPont Hospital, Wilmington, DE
  • Adriane L. Baylis
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus
    Velopharyngeal Dysfunction Program, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH
  • John S. Preisser
    Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • David J. Zajac
    Department of Dental Ecology, Craniofacial Center, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to David J. Zajac: david_zajac@unc.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss×
Article Information
Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 10, 2017
Velopharyngeal Status of Stop Consonants and Vowels Produced by Young Children With and Without Repaired Cleft Palate at 12, 14, and 18 Months of Age: A Preliminary Analysis
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2017, Vol. 60, 1467-1476. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0259
History: Received June 17, 2016 , Revised October 14, 2016 , Accepted November 8, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2017, Vol. 60, 1467-1476. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0259
History: Received June 17, 2016; Revised October 14, 2016; Accepted November 8, 2016

Purpose The objective was to determine velopharyngeal (VP) status of stop consonants and vowels produced by young children with repaired cleft palate (CP) and typically developing (TD) children from 12 to 18 months of age.

Method Nasal ram pressure (NRP) was monitored in 9 children (5 boys, 4 girls) with repaired CP with or without cleft lip and 9 TD children (5 boys, 4 girls) at 12, 14, and 18 months of age. VP status was categorized as open or closed for oral stops and vowels in three contexts—consonant–vowel syllables, vowel–consonant–vowel syllables, and isolated vowels—on the basis of the presence or absence of positive nasal ram pressure.

Results At 12 months of age, TD children produced 98% of stops and vowels in syllables with VP closure throughout the entire segment compared with 81% of stops and vowels for children with CP (p < .0001). There were no significant group differences at 14 or 18 months of age.

Conclusions TD children exhibit consistent VP closure for stop consonants and vowels at 12 months of age. Some children with repaired CP do not achieve consistent closure until 14 months of age, approximately 3 to 4 months following palate repair.

Acknowledgments
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under Grant R01DE022566. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors would like to thank Reuben Adatorwovor, Jacqueline Dorry, Katie Garcia, Katlyn Latimer, Kathleen McGrath, Daniela Vivaldi, and Rachel Ungaro for assistance with various aspects of data collection and analysis.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access