Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings From a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample Purpose To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 24, 2017
Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings From a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Kylie A. Smith
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • Lisa Iverach
    Australian Stuttering Research Centre, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe NSW, Australia
    Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW, Australia
  • Susan O'Brian
    Australian Stuttering Research Centre, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe NSW, Australia
  • Fiona Mensah
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • Elaina Kefalianos
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Audiology and Speech Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • Anna Hearne
    Speech Language Therapy, Institute of Education, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
  • Sheena Reilly
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Australia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Kylie A. Smith: kylie.smith@mcri.edu.au
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 24, 2017
Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings From a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, May 2017, Vol. 60, 1211-1222. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0035
History: Received January 27, 2016 , Revised July 17, 2016 , Accepted October 27, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, May 2017, Vol. 60, 1211-1222. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0035
History: Received January 27, 2016; Revised July 17, 2016; Accepted October 27, 2016

Purpose To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls.

Method Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and (c) nonstuttering controls. Linear regression modeling compared outcomes on measures of child anxiety and emotional and behavioral functioning for the 3 groups.

Results Without adjustment for covariates (unadjusted analyses), the group with persistent stuttering showed significantly increased anxiety compared with the recovered stuttering group and nonstuttering controls. The group with persistent stuttering had a higher number of children with autism spectrum disorder and/or learning difficulties. Once these variables were included as covariates in subsequent analysis, there was no difference in anxiety, emotional and behavioral functioning, or temperament among groups.

Conclusion Although recognized to be associated with stuttering in clinical samples, anxiety was not higher in school-age children who stutter in a community cohort. It may be that anxiety develops later or is less marked in community cohorts compared with clinical samples. We did, however, observe higher anxiety scores in those children who stuttered and had autism spectrum disorder or learning difficulties. Implications and recommendations for research are discussed.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank all the parents and children who participated in this study and Dr. Angela Morgan for her supervision and support.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access