Explicit and Implicit Verbal Response Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine (a) explicit and implicit verbal response inhibition in preschool children who do stutter (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) and (b) the relationship between response inhibition and language skills. Method Participants were 41 CWS and 41 CWNS between the ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 14, 2017
Explicit and Implicit Verbal Response Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Julie D. Anderson
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Stacy A. Wagovich
    Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, Columbia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Julie D. Anderson: judander@indiana.edu
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 14, 2017
Explicit and Implicit Verbal Response Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, 836-852. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0135
History: Received April 5, 2016 , Revised August 10, 2016 , Accepted October 8, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, 836-852. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0135
History: Received April 5, 2016; Revised August 10, 2016; Accepted October 8, 2016

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine (a) explicit and implicit verbal response inhibition in preschool children who do stutter (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) and (b) the relationship between response inhibition and language skills.

Method Participants were 41 CWS and 41 CWNS between the ages of 3;1 and 6;1 (years;months). Explicit verbal response inhibition was measured using a computerized version of the grass–snow task (Carlson & Moses, 2001), and implicit verbal response inhibition was measured using the baa–meow task. Main dependent variables were reaction time and accuracy.

Results The CWS were significantly less accurate than the CWNS on the implicit task, but not the explicit task. The CWS also exhibited slower reaction times than the CWNS on both tasks. Between-group differences in performance could not be attributed to working memory demands. Overall, children's performance on the inhibition tasks corresponded with parents' perceptions of their children's inhibition skills in daily life.

Conclusions CWS are less effective and efficient than CWNS in suppressing a dominant response while executing a conflicting response in the verbal domain.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a grant awarded to Julie D. Anderson from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health (R01DC012517).
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