Development of Grammatical Accuracy in English-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study Purpose We sought to evaluate the development of grammatical accuracy in English-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Method Ten children who received CIs before age 30 months participated in this study at 3, 4, and 5 years postimplantation. For the purpose of comparison, 10 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 14, 2017
Development of Grammatical Accuracy in English-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ling-Yu Guo
    Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, University at Buffalo, NY; Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, Asia University, Taiwan
  • Linda J. Spencer
    Master’s Speech-Language Pathology Program, Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, UT
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Ling-Yu Guo: lingyugu@buffalo.edu
  • Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray
    Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray×
  • Associate Editor: Amy Lederberg
    Associate Editor: Amy Lederberg×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 14, 2017
Development of Grammatical Accuracy in English-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, 1062-1075. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0182
History: Received May 4, 2016 , Revised August 15, 2016 , Accepted October 16, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, 1062-1075. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0182
History: Received May 4, 2016; Revised August 15, 2016; Accepted October 16, 2016

Purpose We sought to evaluate the development of grammatical accuracy in English-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span.

Method Ten children who received CIs before age 30 months participated in this study at 3, 4, and 5 years postimplantation. For the purpose of comparison, 10 children each at ages 3, 4, and 5 years with typical hearing were included as well. All children participated in a story-retell task. We computed percent grammatical communication units (PGCU) in the task.

Results Children with CIs showed significant improvement in PGCU over the 3-year span. However, they produced lower PGCU than children with typical hearing who had matched hearing age at 4 and 5 years postimplantation. At the individual level, some children with CIs were able to produce PGCU comparable to children with typical hearing as early as 3 years after implantation. Better speech-perception skills at earlier time points were associated with higher PGCU at later time points. Moreover, children with and without CIs showed similar rankings in the types of grammatical errors.

Conclusion Despite having auditory-perceptual and information-processing constraints, children who received CIs before age 30 months were able to produce grammatical sentences, albeit with a delayed pattern.

Acknowledgments
This research is supported in part by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Research Grant 5 P50 DC00242, awarded to Bruce Gantz, and by an American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation New Century Scholar Research Grant, awarded to Ling-Yu Guo. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, the National Institutes of Health, or the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation. We are grateful to the children who participated in the present study. We also thank Bruce Gantz and J. Bruce Tomblin for granting access to the archival data, Louise Duchesne for sharing her manuscript, and Kayla Kuehlewind and Katelynn Imagna for processing the data.
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