A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech Purpose Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. ... Supplement Article
Supplement Article  |   April 14, 2017
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lawrence D. Shriberg
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Edythe A. Strand
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic–Rochester, NY
  • Marios Fourakis
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Kathy J. Jakielski
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Augustana College, Rock Island, IL
  • Sheryl D. Hall
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Heather B. Karlsson
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Heather L. Mabie
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Jane L. McSweeny
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Christie M. Tilkens
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • David L. Wilson
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Lawrence D. Shriberg: shriberg@waisman.wisc.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Supplement: A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay
Supplement Article   |   April 14, 2017
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, S1135-S1152. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0298
History: Received August 24, 2015 , Revised April 12, 2016 , Accepted August 21, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, S1135-S1152. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0298
History: Received August 24, 2015; Revised April 12, 2016; Accepted August 21, 2016

Purpose Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS.

Method PM and other scores were obtained for 264 participants in 6 groups: CAS in idiopathic, neurogenetic, and complex neurodevelopmental disorders; adult-onset apraxia of speech (AAS) consequent to stroke and primary progressive apraxia of speech; and idiopathic speech delay.

Results Participants with CAS and AAS had significantly lower scores than typically speaking reference participants and speech delay controls on measures posited to assess representational and transcoding processes. Representational deficits differed between CAS and AAS groups, with support for both underspecified linguistic representations and memory/access deficits in CAS, but for only the latter in AAS. CAS–AAS similarities in the age–sex standardized percentages of occurrence of the most frequent type of inappropriate pauses (abrupt) and significant differences in the standardized occurrence of appropriate pauses were consistent with speech processing findings.

Conclusions Results support the hypotheses of core representational and transcoding speech processing deficits in CAS and theoretical coherence of the PM's pause-speech elements with these deficits.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant DC000496 and by a core grant to the Waisman Center from the National Institute of Child Health and Development (Grant HD03352). Authors CT and HK made the original and substantial continuing contributions leading to the development of the PM. We are grateful to the following colleagues and collaborators for their significant contributions to this research: Len Abbeduto, Nancy Alarcon, Becky Baas, Adriane Baylis, Richard Boada, Roger Brown, Stephen Camarata, Thomas Campbell, Richard Folsom, Lisa Freebairn, Jordan Green, Barbara Lewis, Christopher Moore, Katherine Odell, Bruce Pennington, Nancy Potter, Jonathan Preston, Erin Redle, Heather Leavy Rusiewicz, Alison Scheer-Cohen, Kristie Spencer, Ruth Stoeckel, Bruce Tomblin, Jennifer Vannest, and Emily White. We also thank the many participants, parents of participants, and research colleagues who have contributed insights on needs and issues in diagnostic research in CAS.
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