A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker Purpose The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which ... Supplement Article
Supplement Article  |   April 14, 2017
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lawrence D. Shriberg
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Edythe A. Strand
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
  • Marios Fourakis
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Kathy J. Jakielski
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Augustana College, Rock Island, IL
  • Sheryl D. Hall
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Heather B. Karlsson
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Heather L. Mabie
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Jane L. McSweeny
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Christie M. Tilkens
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • David L. Wilson
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Lawrence D. Shriberg: shriberg@waisman.wisc.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor and Associate Editor: Julie Liss×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Supplement: A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay
Supplement Article   |   April 14, 2017
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, S1096-S1117. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0296
History: Received August 24, 2015 , Revised April 12, 2016 , Accepted August 21, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2017, Vol. 60, S1096-S1117. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0296
History: Received August 24, 2015; Revised April 12, 2016; Accepted August 21, 2016

Purpose The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay.

Method The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical utility of a diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech, including evaluation of the present proposal. An overview is given of the Speech Disorders Classification System, including extensions completed in the same approximately 3-year period in which the PM was developed.

Results The finalized Speech Disorders Classification System includes a nosology and cross-classification procedures for childhood and persistent speech disorders and motor speech disorders (Shriberg, Strand, & Mabie, 2017). A PM is developed that provides procedural and scoring information, and citations to papers and technical reports that include audio exemplars of the PM and reference data used to standardize PM scores are provided.

Conclusions The PM described here is an acoustic-aided perceptual sign that quantifies one aspect of speech precision in the linguistic domain of phrasing. This diagnostic marker can be used to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant DC000496, awarded to Lawrence D. Shriberg, and by a core grant, National Institute of Child Health and Development Grant HD03352, to the Waisman Center. The sixth and ninth authors made the original and substantial continuing contributions that led to the development of the Pause Marker. We are grateful to the following colleagues and collaborators for their significant contributions to this research: Len Abbeduto, Nancy Alarcon, Becky Baas, Adriane Baylis, Richard Boada, Roger Brown, Stephen Camarata, Thomas Campbell, Richard Folsom, Lisa Freebairn, Jordan Green, Barbara Lewis, Christopher Moore, Katherine Odell, Bruce Pennington, Nancy Potter, Jonathan Preston, Erin Redle, Heather Leavy Rusiewicz, Alison Scheer-Cohen, Kristie Spencer, Ruth Stoeckel, Bruce Tomblin, Jennifer Vannest, and Emily White. We also thank the many participants, parents of participants, and research colleagues who have contributed insights into the needs and issues in diagnostic research in childhood apraxia of speech.
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