Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons With English Using the Language Development Survey Purpose The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Method Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = ... Research Note
Newly Published
Research Note  |   March 10, 2017
Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons With English Using the Language Development Survey
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Leslie Rescorla
    Bryn Mawr College, PA
  • Holly Constants
    Bryn Mawr College, PA
  • Marta Białecka-Pikul
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
  • Małgorzata Stępień-Nycz
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
  • Anna Ochał
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Leslie Rescorla: lrescorl@brynmawr.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Stephanie Stokes
    Associate Editor: Stephanie Stokes×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Newly Published / Research Note
Research Note   |   March 10, 2017
Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons With English Using the Language Development Survey
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0385
History: Received November 6, 2015 , Revised May 27, 2016 , Accepted August 22, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0385
History: Received November 6, 2015; Revised May 27, 2016; Accepted August 22, 2016

Purpose The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989).

Method Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = 24.69 months, SD = 0.78).

Results Test–retest reliability was .92, internal consistency was .99, and concurrent validity was .55. Girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys. Mean LDS score was significantly lower in Polish than in English, and fewer Polish children had LDS scores >200 words. Also, more words were reported for <25% of the children, and fewer words were reported for ≥75% of the children, in Polish than in English. The cross-linguistic correlation for word frequencies was .44. Noun dominance was comparable in the two languages, and 55 cross-linguistic word matches were found among the top 100 words. Although more Polish than U.S. children had <50 words (18.1% vs. 8.3%), children with <50 words and those with ≥50 words were generally acquiring the same words.

Conclusions Vocabulary acquisition appeared to be slower in Polish than in English, probably because of the complexity of the language. However, the languages were very similar with respect to vocabulary composition findings.

Acknowledgment
The research in Poland was funded by Polish National Science Centre Grant 2011/01/B/HS6/00453.
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