The German Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS-G): Reliability and Validity of a Novel Assessment of Communicative Participation Purpose Our purpose was to explore the validity and reliability of the German Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS-G; Thomas-Stonell, Oddson, Robertson, & Rosenbaum, 2010, 2012), which is an authorized adaptation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (Thomas-Stonell et al., 2010) tool, which ... Research Note
Research Note  |   March 01, 2017
The German Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS-G): Reliability and Validity of a Novel Assessment of Communicative Participation
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sandra Neumann
    Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany
  • Sandra Salm
    Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany
  • Christian Rietz
    Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany
  • Prisca Stenneken
    Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany
  • Disclosure: The first author is the translator of the FOCUS-G. However, the authors do not have any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence the content and writing of this article. Therefore, the authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The first author is the translator of the FOCUS-G. However, the authors do not have any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence the content and writing of this article. Therefore, the authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Sandra Neumann: sandra.neumann@uni-koeln.de
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts
    Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Language / Research Notes
Research Note   |   March 01, 2017
The German Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS-G): Reliability and Validity of a Novel Assessment of Communicative Participation
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, March 2017, Vol. 60, 675-681. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0219
History: Received June 17, 2015 , Revised October 18, 2015 , Accepted May 12, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, March 2017, Vol. 60, 675-681. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0219
History: Received June 17, 2015; Revised October 18, 2015; Accepted May 12, 2016

Purpose Our purpose was to explore the validity and reliability of the German Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS-G; Thomas-Stonell, Oddson, Robertson, & Rosenbaum, 2010, 2012), which is an authorized adaptation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (Thomas-Stonell et al., 2010) tool, which measures communicative participation in preschool children.

Method Parents of typically developing children (TDC) and of children with speech impairment (CSI) completed the FOCUS-G and the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children (KiddyKINDL; Ravens-Sieberer & Bullinger, 2000). To determine test–retest reliability, the FOCUS-G was readministered to a subsample of parents 1 week later.

Results The FOCUS-G had high values for internal consistency (α = .959, Ω = .941), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .974), and split–half reliability (r = .832). Total scores on the FOCUS-G and KiddyKINDL demonstrated significant associations. FOCUS-G total scores and subdomain scores for both samples showed significant correlations, indicating good construct validity. The discriminatory ability of the FOCUS-G was indicated by significantly higher mean scores for TDC (M = 6.03, SD = 0.65) than CSI (M = 5.47, SD = 1.02).

Conclusion The overall good psychometric properties of this novel assessment of communicative participation support its use by speech-language pathologists for clinical and research purposes with German-speaking children.

Acknowledgments
We thank the families, children, preschool teachers, speech-language pathologists, members of the cleft palate team, and research assistants who participated in this project.
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