Auditory Stimulus Processing and Task Learning Are Adequate in Dyslexia, but Benefits From Regularities Are Reduced Purpose The reading deficit for people with dyslexia is typically associated with linguistic, memory, and perceptual-discrimination difficulties, whose relation to reading impairment is disputed. We proposed that automatic detection and usage of serial sound regularities for individuals with dyslexia is impaired (anchoring deficit hypothesis), leading to the formation of less ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2017
Auditory Stimulus Processing and Task Learning Are Adequate in Dyslexia, but Benefits From Regularities Are Reduced
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Luba Daikhin
    Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • Ofri Raviv
    Edmond & Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • Merav Ahissar
    Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
    Edmond & Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Merav Ahissar: msmerava@gmail.com
  • Luba Daikhin and Ofri Raviv contributed equally to this article.
    Luba Daikhin and Ofri Raviv contributed equally to this article.×
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Bharath Chandrasekaran
    Associate Editor: Bharath Chandrasekaran×
Article Information
Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2017
Auditory Stimulus Processing and Task Learning Are Adequate in Dyslexia, but Benefits From Regularities Are Reduced
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2017, Vol. 60, 471-479. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0114
History: Received March 22, 2016 , Revised July 21, 2016 , Accepted August 7, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2017, Vol. 60, 471-479. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0114
History: Received March 22, 2016; Revised July 21, 2016; Accepted August 7, 2016
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose The reading deficit for people with dyslexia is typically associated with linguistic, memory, and perceptual-discrimination difficulties, whose relation to reading impairment is disputed. We proposed that automatic detection and usage of serial sound regularities for individuals with dyslexia is impaired (anchoring deficit hypothesis), leading to the formation of less reliable sound predictions. Agus, Carrión-Castillo, Pressnitzer, and Ramus, (2014)  reported seemingly contradictory evidence by showing similar performance by participants with and without dyslexia in a demanding auditory task that contained task-relevant regularities. To carefully assess the sensitivity of participants with dyslexia to regularities of this task, we replicated their study.

Method Thirty participants with and 24 without dyslexia performed the replicated task. On each trial, a 1-s noise stimulus was presented. Participants had to decide whether the stimulus contained repetitions (was constructed from a 0.5-s noise segment repeated twice) or not. It is implicit in this structure that some of the stimuli with repetitions were themselves repeated across trials. We measured the ability to detect within-noise repetitions and the sensitivity to cross-trial repetitions of the same noise stimuli.

Results We replicated the finding of similar mean performance. However, individuals with dyslexia were less sensitive to the cross-trial repetition of noise stimuli and tended to be more sensitive to repetitions in novel noise stimuli.

Conclusion These findings indicate that online auditory processing for individuals with dyslexia is adequate but their implicit retention and usage of sound regularities is indeed impaired.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Grant I-1303-105.4/2015), awarded to Merav Ahissar, and Grant 2425/15 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the International Development Research Center, the Israeli Science Foundation, and the Azrieli Foundation, awarded to Merav Ahissar.
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