A Clinical Evaluation of the Competing Sources of Input Hypothesis Purpose Our purpose was to test the competing sources of input (CSI) hypothesis by evaluating an intervention based on its principles. This hypothesis proposes that children's use of main verbs without tense is the result of their treating certain sentence types in the input (e.g., Was she laughing ... Research Article
Research Article  |   January 01, 2017
A Clinical Evaluation of the Competing Sources of Input Hypothesis
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Marc E. Fey
    Department of Hearing and Speech, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City
  • Laurence B. Leonard
    Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Shelley L. Bredin-Oja
    Life Span Institute, University of Kansas, Kansas City
  • Patricia Deevy
    Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Marc E. Fey: mfey@kumc.edu
  • Editor: Sean Redmond
    Editor: Sean Redmond×
  • Associate Editor: Jan de Jong
    Associate Editor: Jan de Jong×
Article Information
Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   January 01, 2017
A Clinical Evaluation of the Competing Sources of Input Hypothesis
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, January 2017, Vol. 60, 104-120. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0448
History: Received December 29, 2015 , Revised April 20, 2016 , Accepted June 7, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, January 2017, Vol. 60, 104-120. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0448
History: Received December 29, 2015; Revised April 20, 2016; Accepted June 7, 2016

Purpose Our purpose was to test the competing sources of input (CSI) hypothesis by evaluating an intervention based on its principles. This hypothesis proposes that children's use of main verbs without tense is the result of their treating certain sentence types in the input (e.g., Was she laughing ?) as models for declaratives (e.g., She laughing).

Method Twenty preschoolers with specific language impairment were randomly assigned to receive either a CSI-based intervention or a more traditional intervention that lacked the novel CSI features. The auxiliary is and the third-person singular suffix –s were directly treated over a 16-week period. Past tense –ed was monitored as a control.

Results The CSI-based group exhibited greater improvements in use of is than did the traditional group (d = 1.31), providing strong support for the CSI hypothesis. There were no significant between-groups differences in the production of the third-person singular suffix –s or the control (–ed), however.

Conclusions The group differences in the effects on the 2 treated morphemes may be due to differences in their distribution in interrogatives and declaratives (e.g., Is he hiding/He is hiding vs. Does he hide/He hide s ). Refinements in the intervention could address this issue and lead to more general effects across morphemes.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported in part by National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Center Grant HD02528 (Colombo, Principal Investigator, University of Kansas), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Center Grant DC7660 (Warren, Principal Investigator, University of Kansas), and National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Research Grants R01 DC009574 (Fey, Co-Principal Investigator, University of Kansas Medical Center; Leonard, Co-Principal Investigator, Purdue University) and R01 DC00458 (Leonard, Principal Investigator, Purdue University). The first author receives financial benefits related to the research reported in this article by receiving a salary from his employer, the University of Kansas Medical Center, grants from the National Institutes of Health, and royalties from books and related professional materials from Paul H. Brookes Publishing. The second author receives financial benefits related to the research reported in this article by receiving a salary from his employer, Purdue University, and grants from the National Institutes of Health. The third author receives financial benefits related to the research reported in this article by receiving a salary from her employer, the University of Kansas. The last author receives financial benefits related to the research reported in this article by receiving a salary from her employer, Purdue University.
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