Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children With and Without Language-Based Learning Disabilities Purpose Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014)  writing process framework. Method Sixty-four children completed ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2016
Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children With and Without Language-Based Learning Disabilities
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Anthony D. Koutsoftas
    Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Anthony D. Koutsoftas: anthony.koutsoftas@shu.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts
    Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts×
Article Information
Development / School-Based Settings / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2016
Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children With and Without Language-Based Learning Disabilities
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2016, Vol. 59, 1471-1483. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0133
History: Received April 9, 2015 , Revised September 6, 2015 , Accepted May 21, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2016, Vol. 59, 1471-1483. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0133
History: Received April 9, 2015; Revised September 6, 2015; Accepted May 21, 2016

Purpose Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014)  writing process framework.

Method Sixty-four children completed a writing task whereby they planned, wrote, and revised a narrative story across 3 days. Children had extended time to produce an outline, first draft, and final copy of their story. Language transcription approaches were used to obtain measures reflecting writing productivity, complexity, accuracy, and mechanics, in addition to measures of planning and revision.

Results Results indicated that children with writing difficulties produced poorer quality stories compared with their peers yet were not significantly different across all measures. Children with typical development produced longer stories with better spelling accuracy. Writing process measures predicted significant amounts of variance in writing quality across the sample.

Discussion Writing should be considered as part of language assessment and intervention, whether as the sole language difficulty or alongside difficulties with speaking, listening, or reading in children with language-based learning difficulties. Implications for translation of research to practice and service delivery are provided.

Acknowledgments
This work was funded by a New Investigators Grant from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation. I thank the foundation for their support of this project. Many thanks to the students, families, teachers, schools, and districts that participated in this study. Special thanks to all the research assistants who analyzed the written samples collected for this study, especially Marie Odejar, Lindsay Rusnak, and Victoria Petersen.
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