The Impact of Social–Cognitive Stress on Speech Variability, Determinism, and Stability in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter Purpose This study examined the impact of social–cognitive stress on sentence-level speech variability, determinism, and stability in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS). We demonstrated that complementing the spatiotemporal index (STI) with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) provides a novel approach to both assessing and interpreting ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2016
The Impact of Social–Cognitive Stress on Speech Variability, Determinism, and Stability in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Eric S. Jackson
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Mark Tiede
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Deryk Beal
    Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • D. H. Whalen
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
    The Graduate Center of the City University of New York
    Yale University, New Haven, CT
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Eric S. Jackson: eric-s-jackson@uiowa.edu
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2016
The Impact of Social–Cognitive Stress on Speech Variability, Determinism, and Stability in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2016, Vol. 59, 1295-1314. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0145
History: Received April 9, 2016 , Revised August 27, 2016 , Accepted October 27, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2016, Vol. 59, 1295-1314. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-16-0145
History: Received April 9, 2016; Revised August 27, 2016; Accepted October 27, 2016

Purpose This study examined the impact of social–cognitive stress on sentence-level speech variability, determinism, and stability in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS). We demonstrated that complementing the spatiotemporal index (STI) with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) provides a novel approach to both assessing and interpreting speech variability in stuttering.

Method Twenty AWS and 21 AWNS repeated sentences in audience and nonaudience conditions while their lip movements were tracked. Across-sentence variability was assessed via the STI; within-sentence determinism and stability were assessed via RQA.

Results Compared with the AWNS, the AWS produced speech that was more variable across sentences and more deterministic and stable within sentences. Audience presence contributed to greater within-sentence determinism and stability in the AWS. A subset of AWS who were more susceptible to experiencing anxiety exhibited reduced across-sentence variability in the audience condition compared with the nonaudience condition.

Conclusions This study extends the assessment of speech variability in AWS and AWNS into the social–cognitive domain and demonstrates that the characterization of speech within sentences using RQA is complementary to the across-sentence STI measure. AWS seem to adopt a more restrictive, less flexible speaking approach in response to social–cognitive stress, which is presumably a strategy for maintaining observably fluent speech.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant DC-002717 to Haskins Laboratories and National Science Foundation Grant 1513770 to the first author. The authors acknowledge Tricia Zebrowski and Michael A. Riley for helpful comments during the writing of this article. The authors also acknowledge the National Stuttering Association for helping with participant recruitment. The MATLAB procedures implemented for phase space reconstruction and recurrence quantification analysis were obtained at the American Psychological Association Advanced Training Institute on Nonlinear Methods for Psychological Science (http://www.apa.org/science/resources/ati/nonlinear.aspx).
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