Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss Purpose This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5–12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2016
Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Dawna Lewis
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Kendra Schmid
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha
  • Samantha O'Leary
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Jody Spalding
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Robin High
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha
  • Disclosure: Dawna Lewis is a member of the Phonak Pediatric Advisory Board. However, no conflicts with the contents of this article exist. The other authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: Dawna Lewis is a member of the Phonak Pediatric Advisory Board. However, no conflicts with the contents of this article exist. The other authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Dawna Lewis: dawna.lewis@boystown.org
  • Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray
    Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray×
  • Associate Editor: Karen Kirk
    Associate Editor: Karen Kirk×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Hearing Disorders / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2016
Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2016, Vol. 59, 1218-1232. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-15-0207
History: Received June 6, 2015 , Revised December 4, 2015 , Accepted March 6, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2016, Vol. 59, 1218-1232. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-15-0207
History: Received June 6, 2015; Revised December 4, 2015; Accepted March 6, 2016
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL).

Method Children (5–12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8–12 years of age) with MBHL, UHL, or NH (Experiment 2) performed consonant identification and word and sentence recognition in background noise. Percentage correct performance and verbal response time (VRT) were assessed (onset time, total duration).

Results In general, speech recognition improved as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increased both for children with NH and children with MBHL or UHL. The groups did not differ on measures of VRT. Onset times were longer for incorrect than for correct responses. For correct responses only, there was a general increase in VRT with decreasing SNR.

Conclusions Findings indicate poorer sentence recognition in children with NH and MBHL or UHL as SNR decreases. VRT results suggest that greater effort was expended when processing stimuli that were incorrectly identified. Increasing VRT with decreasing SNR for correct responses also supports greater effort in poorer acoustic conditions. The absence of significant hearing status differences suggests that VRT was not differentially affected by MBHL, UHL, or NH for children in this study.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R03 DC009675 (awarded to Dawna Lewis), T35 DC08757 (awarded to Samantha O’Leary; Michael Gorga, PI), P20 GM109023 (awarded to Dawna Lewis; Walt Jesteadt, PI), and P30 DC004662 (Michael Gorga, PI). The content of this article is the responsibility and opinions of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health. We appreciate the contributions of Kanae Nishi in development of Praat scripts and procedures for coding verbal response times.
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