Towards a Theory of Learning for Naming Rehabilitation: Retrieval Practice and Spacing Effects Purpose The purpose of this article was to examine how different types of learning experiences affect naming impairment in aphasia. Methods In 4 people with aphasia with naming impairment, we compared the benefits of naming treatment that emphasized retrieval practice (practice retrieving target names from long-term memory) with ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2016
Towards a Theory of Learning for Naming Rehabilitation: Retrieval Practice and Spacing Effects
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Erica L. Middleton
    Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA
  • Myrna F. Schwartz
    Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA
  • Katherine A. Rawson
    Kent State University, OH
  • Hilary Traut
    Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA
  • Jay Verkuilen
    City University of New York
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Erica L. Middleton: middleer@einstein.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Robert Marshall
    Associate Editor: Robert Marshall×
Article Information
Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2016
Towards a Theory of Learning for Naming Rehabilitation: Retrieval Practice and Spacing Effects
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2016, Vol. 59, 1111-1122. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0303
History: Received August 28, 2015 , Revised December 23, 2015 , Accepted February 23, 2016
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2016, Vol. 59, 1111-1122. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0303
History: Received August 28, 2015; Revised December 23, 2015; Accepted February 23, 2016

Purpose The purpose of this article was to examine how different types of learning experiences affect naming impairment in aphasia.

Methods In 4 people with aphasia with naming impairment, we compared the benefits of naming treatment that emphasized retrieval practice (practice retrieving target names from long-term memory) with errorless learning (repetition training, which preempts retrieval practice) according to different schedules of learning. The design was within subjects. Items were administered for multiple training trials for retrieval practice or repetition in a spaced schedule (an item's trials were separated by multiple unrelated trials) or massed schedule (1 trial intervened between an item's trials). In the spaced condition, we studied 3 magnitudes of spacing to evaluate the impact of effortful retrieval during training on the ultimate benefits conferred by retrieval practice naming treatment. The primary outcome was performance on a retention test of naming after 1 day, with a follow-up test after 1 week.

Results Group analyses revealed that retrieval practice outperformed errorless learning, and spaced learning outperformed massed learning at retention test and at follow-up. Increases in spacing in the retrieval practice condition yielded more robust learning of retrieved information.

Conclusion This study delineates the importance of retrieval practice and spacing for treating naming impairment in aphasia.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health research grants R01-DC000191, awarded to Myrna F. Schwartz, and R03-DC012426, awarded to Erica L. Middleton. A portion of this work was presented at the International Workshop on Language Production, Geneva, Switzerland.
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