Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test–Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults Purpose The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2016
Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test–Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xiao-Ming Sun
    Wichita State University, Kansas
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Xiao-Ming Sun: xiao-ming.sun@wichita.edu
  • Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray
    Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray×
  • Associate Editor: Todd Ricketts
    Associate Editor: Todd Ricketts×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2016
Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test–Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2016, Vol. 59, 819-834. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-14-0322
History: Received November 18, 2014 , Revised April 28, 2015 , Accepted December 14, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2016, Vol. 59, 819-834. doi:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-14-0322
History: Received November 18, 2014; Revised April 28, 2015; Accepted December 14, 2015

Purpose The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms.

Method Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12–octave frequencies (0.236 to 8 kHz), with the ear canal air pressure systematically varied (+200 to −300 daPa). In 40 ears, 7 consecutive trials and a trial of clinical 226-Hz acoustic admittance (Y a ) tympanometry followed. A cavity test was also conducted.

Results From the wideband EA tympanogram, several EA spectrums and EA tympanograms were derived. Descriptive statistics were performed, and population parameters were estimated. The immediate test–retest reliability was excellent. Effects of ear canal air pressure on EA were examined comprehensively. Differences in EA between tympanometric and ambient-pressure measurements were significant. Single-frequency EA tympanograms exemplified for half-octave frequencies were contrasted. The bandpass EA tympanogram, 0.236- and 1-kHz EA and Y a tympanograms, and 226-Hz Y a tympanogram were compared in 9 variables.

Conclusions This study established a database of wideband tympanograms in healthy adults. The data analyses will promote our understanding of the middle ear transfer function. These data will serve as a reference for further studies in clinical populations.

Acknowledgments
A portion of this work was presented at the American Auditory Society Annual Meeting (Scottsdale, AZ, March 5 to 7, 2015). The author is grateful to Laina M. Burdiek and Mitchell D. Frye for assistance with processing the raw data.
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