Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review Purpose The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality ... Review Article
Review Article  |   April 01, 2016
Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ellen de Wit
    Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Margot I. Visser-Bochane
    Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Bert Steenbergen
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands
    Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia
  • Pim van Dijk
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Cees P. van der Schans
    Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Margreet R. Luinge
    Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Ellen de Wit: e.de.wit@pl.hanze.nl
  • Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray
    Editor: Nancy Tye-Murray×
  • Associate Editor: Suzanne Purdy
    Associate Editor: Suzanne Purdy×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Hearing / Review Article
Review Article   |   April 01, 2016
Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2016, Vol. 59, 384-413. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-15-0118
History: Received March 26, 2015 , Revised July 15, 2015 , Accepted August 7, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2016, Vol. 59, 384-413. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-15-0118
History: Received March 26, 2015; Revised July 15, 2015; Accepted August 7, 2015

Purpose The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a multimodal deficit.

Method Six electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies investigating children with (suspected) APD in comparison with typically developing peers. Relevant studies were independently reviewed and appraised by 2 reviewers. Methodological quality was quantified using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's levels of evidence.

Results Fifty-three relevant studies were identified. Five studies were excluded because of weak internal validity. In total, 48 studies were included, of which only 1 was classified as having strong methodological quality. Significant dissimilarities were found between children referred with listening difficulties and controls. These differences relate to auditory and visual functioning, cognition, language, reading, and physiological and neuroimaging measures.

Conclusions Methodological quality of most of the incorporated studies was rated moderate due to the heterogeneous groups of participants, inadequate descriptions of participants, and the omission of valid and reliable measurements. The listening difficulties of children with APD may be a consequence of cognitive, language, and attention issues rather than bottom-up auditory processing.

Acknowledgments
This research was funded by Regional Attention and Action for Knowledge circulation. The Regional Attention and Action for Knowledge circulation scheme is managed by the Foundation Innovation Alliance (Stichting Innovatie Alliantie) with funding from the ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the Netherlands. The first author received a doctoral studentship from the Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen and the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
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