The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2016
The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Samantha E. Shune
    University of Oregon, Eugene
  • Jerald B. Moon
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Shawn S. Goodman
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Samantha E. Shune: sshune@uoregon.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Caryn Easterling
    Associate Editor: Caryn Easterling×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Special Populations / Older Adults & Aging / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2016
The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2016, Vol. 59, 195-205. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-15-0138
History: Received April 13, 2015 , Revised August 31, 2015 , Accepted October 7, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2016, Vol. 59, 195-205. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-15-0138
History: Received April 13, 2015; Revised August 31, 2015; Accepted October 7, 2015

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.

Method Using a 2 × 2 repeated-measures design, eating-related lip, jaw, and hand movements were recorded from 24 healthy older (ages 70–85 years) and 24 healthy younger (ages 18–30 years) adults under 4 conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (proprioceptive loss), sensory-loss self-feeding (auditory and visual loss/degradation), and sensory-loss assisted feeding (loss/degradation of all cues).

Results All participants demonstrated anticipatory mouth opening. The absence of proprioception delayed lip-lowering onset, and sensory loss more negatively affected offset. Given at least 1 preoral sensorimotor cue, older adults initiated movement earlier than younger adults.

Conclusions Preoral sensorimotor information influences anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements, highlighting the importance of these cues. Earlier movement in older adults may be a compensation, facilitating safe swallowing given other age-related declines. Further research is needed to determine if the negative impact of cue removal may be further exacerbated in a nonhealthy system (e.g., presence of dysphagia or disease), potentially increasing swallowing- and eating-related risks.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health (Grant F31AG042255) and the University of Iowa Executive Council of Graduate and Professional Students, both awarded to S. E. Shune. We thank M. Cook for her assistance in data collection and K. Bryant, E. Finnegan, M. Karnell, C. Ludlow, and P. Zebrowski for their feedback. Portions of this work were presented as a poster at the Dysphagia Research Society's annual meeting (March 2014).
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