Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4–8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups. Method Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2016
Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lakshmi Kollara
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Jamie L. Perry
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Suzanne Hudson
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Lakshmi Kollara: kollarasunill11@students.ecu.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: David Zajac
    Associate Editor: David Zajac×
Article Information
Special Populations / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2016
Racial Variations in Velopharyngeal and Craniometric Morphology in Children: An Imaging Study
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2016, Vol. 59, 27-38. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0236
History: Received August 25, 2014 , Revised April 30, 2015 , Accepted October 26, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2016, Vol. 59, 27-38. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0236
History: Received August 25, 2014; Revised April 30, 2015; Accepted October 26, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine craniometric and velopharyngeal anatomy among young children (4–8 years of age) with normal anatomy across Black and White racial groups.

Method Thirty-two healthy children (16 White and 16 Black) with normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated and successfully completed the magnetic resonance imaging scans. Measurements included 11 craniofacial and 9 velopharyngeal measures.

Results Two-way analysis of covariance was used to determine the effects of race and sex on velopharyngeal measures and all craniometric measures except head circumference. Head circumference was included as a covariate to control for overall cranial size. Sex did not have a significant effect on any of the craniometric measures. Significant racial differences were demonstrated for face height. A significant race effect was also observed for mean velar length, velar thickness, and velopharyngeal ratio.

Conclusion The present study provides separate craniofacial and velopharyngeal values for young Black and White children. Data from this study can be used to examine morphological variations with respect to race and sex.

Acknowledgment
This study was made possible by Grant 1R03DC009676-01A1 (PI: Jamie Perry) from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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