Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes Purpose The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic “specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds.” Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language ... Research Forum
Research Forum  |   February 01, 2016
Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mabel L. Rice
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Mabel L. Rice: Mabel@ku.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Sean Redmond
    Editor and Associate Editor: Sean Redmond×
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Special Populations / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Autism Spectrum / Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Forum: SLI, ADHD, ASD, CI, Bilingualism, and Bidialectism
Research Forum   |   February 01, 2016
Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2016, Vol. 59, 122-132. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-15-0255
History: Received July 20, 2015 , Revised July 31, 2015 , Accepted August 5, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2016, Vol. 59, 122-132. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-15-0255
History: Received July 20, 2015; Revised July 31, 2015; Accepted August 5, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic “specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds.” Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language learning contexts.

Method The topic is timely due to current debates about the diagnosis of SLI. An overarching comparative conceptual framework is provided for comparisons of SLI with other clinical conditions. Comparisons of SLI in children with low-normal or normal nonverbal IQ illustrate the unexpected outcomes of 2 × 2 comparison designs.

Results Comparative studies reveal unexpected relationships among speech, language, cognitive, and social dimensions of children's development as well as precise ways to identify children with SLI who are bilingual or dialect speakers.

Conclusions The diagnosis of SLI is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, risks for language impairments, assessments for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. Although children's language acquisition is robust under high levels of risk, unexplained individual variations in language acquisition lead to persistent language impairments.

Acknowledgment
Preparation of this research forum article was supported by grants from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (R01DC001803, R01DC005226, and P30DC005803, principal investigator Mabel L. Rice of the University of Kansas).
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