Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback Purpose To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2015
Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Adam Jacks
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Katarina L. Haley
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Adam Jacks: adam_jacks@med.unc.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Julie Liss
    Associate Editor: Julie Liss×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Fluency Disorders / Hearing & Speech Perception / Language Disorders / Aphasia / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2015
Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2015, Vol. 58, 1670-1686. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0277
History: Received October 2, 2014 , Revised June 12, 2015 , Accepted August 8, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2015, Vol. 58, 1670-1686. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0277
History: Received October 2, 2014; Revised June 12, 2015; Accepted August 8, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not expected to improve speech fluency.

Method Ten participants with APH/AOS and 10 neurologically healthy (NH) participants were studied under both feedback conditions. To allow examination of individual responses, we used an ABACA design. Effects were examined on syllable rate, disfluency duration, and vocal intensity.

Results Seven of 10 APH/AOS participants increased fluency with masking by increasing rate, decreasing disfluency duration, or both. In contrast, none of the NH participants increased speaking rate with MAF. In the AAF condition, only 1 APH/AOS participant increased fluency. Four APH/AOS participants and 8 NH participants slowed their rate with AAF.

Conclusions Speaking with MAF appears to increase fluency in a subset of individuals with APH/AOS, indicating that overreliance on auditory feedback monitoring may contribute to their disorder presentation. The distinction between responders and nonresponders was not linked to AOS diagnosis, so additional work is needed to develop hypotheses for candidacy and underlying control mechanisms.

Acknowledgments
Research reported in this article was supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders of the National Institutes of Health under award R03DC011881. A limited report of data included in this article was given as a poster session at the Motor Speech Conference in Sarasota, FL in February 2014. We gratefully acknowledge research assistants Lúcia Fischer and Peter Schultz for syllable and disfluency coding, Tyson Harmon for analysis of the NH participants, and colleagues Emily Buss and Lori Leibold for comments on a draft of this article. Last, we appreciate the participants who gave their time to be in this study.
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