Past Tense Production in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment Across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis Purpose This study examined the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) across Germanic languages differ from their typically developing (TD) peers in the use of past tense morphology. Method A systematic literature search identified empirical studies examining regular and/or irregular past tense production by English ... Review Article
Review Article  |   August 01, 2015
Past Tense Production in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment Across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Windi C. Krok
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Laurence B. Leonard
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Windi C. Krok: wkrok@purdue.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Shelley Gray
    Associate Editor: Shelley Gray×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Language / Review Article
Review Article   |   August 01, 2015
Past Tense Production in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment Across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2015, Vol. 58, 1326-1340. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0348
History: Received December 11, 2014 , Revised March 24, 2015 , Accepted May 11, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2015, Vol. 58, 1326-1340. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0348
History: Received December 11, 2014; Revised March 24, 2015; Accepted May 11, 2015

Purpose This study examined the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) across Germanic languages differ from their typically developing (TD) peers in the use of past tense morphology.

Method A systematic literature search identified empirical studies examining regular and/or irregular past tense production by English and non-English Germanic-speaking children with SLI and their TD peers. Data from qualifying studies were extracted and converted to Hedges's g effect sizes.

Results Seventeen English and 8 non-English Germanic studies met inclusionary criteria. Comparing children with SLI and their TD age-matched (TDA) peers resulted in large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular and irregular past tense production. Comparisons between children with SLI and their TD younger (TDY) peers also revealed large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular past tense production. Effect sizes for studies comparing SLI and TDY irregular past tense production were large for non-English Germanic-speaking children and moderate for English-speaking children.

Conclusions Results suggest that children with SLI across Germanic languages do indeed have more difficulty marking verbs for past tense than TDA and TDY peers. The findings suggest that the potential value of past tense production as a clinical marker of SLI may well extend beyond English.

Acknowledgments
Preparation of this review article was supported in part by Grants T32 DC00030 and R01 DC00458 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, awarded to the second author. We would also like to thank Jan de Jong for his insight and advice on non-English Germanic languages, as well as Julia Bergmann for her assistance with compliance reliability.
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