Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults Purpose Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy ... Research Note
Research Note  |   August 01, 2015
Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Angela M. Dietsch
    Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD
    Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD
  • Heather M. Clark
    The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
  • Jessica N. Steiner
    Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD
  • Nancy Pearl Solomon
    Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Angela M. Dietsch: angela.dietsch@yahoo.com
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Kate Bunton
    Associate Editor: Kate Bunton×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Dysarthria / Special Populations / Older Adults & Aging / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Speech / Research Note
Research Note   |   August 01, 2015
Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2015, Vol. 58, 1145-1150. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0325
History: Received November 20, 2014 , Revised April 27, 2015 , Accepted May 1, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2015, Vol. 58, 1145-1150. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0325
History: Received November 20, 2014; Revised April 27, 2015; Accepted May 1, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue.

Method The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy adults, including equal numbers of men and women in each of two age groups: 18–40 years and 60+ years. Data were collected from relaxed muscles at the masseter, cheek, and lateral tongue surfaces in two positions: reclined on the side and seated with head tilted.

Results Tissue stiffness differed across age, sex, and measurement site with multiple interaction effects. Overall, older subjects exhibited higher stiffness coefficients and oscillation frequency measures than younger subjects whereas sex differences varied by tissue site. Effects of body position were inconsistent across tissue site and measurement.

Conclusions Although older subjects were expected to have lower muscle tone, age-related nonmuscular tissue changes may have contributed to yield a net effect of higher stiffness. These data raise several considerations for the development of accurate normative data and for future diagnostic applications of tissue stiffness assessment.

Acknowledgments
This work was partially supported by a grant from the United States Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (Department of Defense Grant 10084004), awarded to N. P. Solomon. A portion of this work was presented at the 2014 Motor Speech Conference (February 27–March 2, 2014, Sarasota, FL). We extend our appreciation to Laura Sharkey for her help with this project. The views expressed in this research note are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.
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