Effects of Context Type on Lipreading and Listening Performance and Implications for Sentence Processing Purpose This study compared the use of 2 different types of contextual cues (sentence based and situation based) in 2 different modalities (visual only and auditory only). Method Twenty young adults were tested with the Illustrated Sentence Test (Tye-Murray, Hale, Spehar, Myerson, & Sommers, 2014) and the Speech ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2015
Effects of Context Type on Lipreading and Listening Performance and Implications for Sentence Processing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Brent Spehar
    Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
  • Stacey Goebel
    Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, GA
  • Nancy Tye-Murray
    Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Brent Spehar: speharb@ent.wustl.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Ann Geers
    Associate Editor: Ann Geers×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Audiologic / Aural Rehabilitation / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2015
Effects of Context Type on Lipreading and Listening Performance and Implications for Sentence Processing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2015, Vol. 58, 1093-1102. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-14-0360
History: Received December 23, 2014 , Revised March 18, 2015 , Accepted March 27, 2015
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2015, Vol. 58, 1093-1102. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-14-0360
History: Received December 23, 2014; Revised March 18, 2015; Accepted March 27, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose This study compared the use of 2 different types of contextual cues (sentence based and situation based) in 2 different modalities (visual only and auditory only).

Method Twenty young adults were tested with the Illustrated Sentence Test (Tye-Murray, Hale, Spehar, Myerson, & Sommers, 2014) and the Speech Perception in Noise Test (Bilger, Nuetzel, Rabinowitz, & Rzeczkowski, 1984; Kalikow, Stevens, & Elliott, 1977) in the 2 modalities. The Illustrated Sentences Test presents sentences with no context and sentences accompanied by picture-based situational context cues. The Speech Perception in Noise Test presents sentences with low sentence-based context and sentences with high sentence-based context.

Results Participants benefited from both types of context and received more benefit when testing occurred in the visual-only modality than when it occurred in the auditory-only modality. Participants' use of sentence-based context did not correlate with use of situation-based context. Cue usage did not correlate between the 2 modalities.

Conclusions The ability to use contextual cues appears to be dependent on the type of cue and the presentation modality of the target word(s). In a theoretical sense, the results suggest that models of word recognition and sentence processing should incorporate the influence of multiple sources of information and recognize that the 2 types of context have different influences on speech perception. In a clinical sense, the results suggest that aural rehabilitation programs might provide training to optimize use of both kinds of contextual cues.

Acknowledgments
Support was provided by National Institutes of Health Grant AG018029. This research was completed as part of Stacey Goebel's capstone project at Washington University School of Medicine.
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