Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech Purpose Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method Cognitive functions were investigated in ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2015
Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lian Nijland
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands
    Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Herlaarhof, Reinier van Arkel Group, Vught, the Netherlands
  • Hayo Terband
    Utrecht Institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
    Center for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Ben Maassen
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands
    Center for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
    University Medical Center, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Hayo Terband: h.r.terband@uu.nl
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Julie Liss
    Associate Editor: Julie Liss×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2015
Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2015, Vol. 58, 550-565. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0084
History: Received March 17, 2014 , Revised September 1, 2014 , Accepted December 31, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2015, Vol. 58, 550-565. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0084
History: Received March 17, 2014; Revised September 1, 2014; Accepted December 31, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems.

Method Cognitive functions were investigated in 3 domains: complex sensorimotor and sequential memory functions, simple sensorimotor functions, and nonrelated control functions. Seventeen children with CAS were compared with 17 children with normal speech development at 2 occasions within 15 months.

Results The children with CAS showed overall lower scores but similar improvement at Occasion 2 compared with the typically developing controls, indicating an overall delay in the development of cognitive functions. However, a specific deviant development in sequential abilities was found as well, indicated by significantly lower scores at Occasion 2 as compared with younger control children at Occasion 1. Furthermore, the scores on the complex sensorimotor and sequential memory tasks were significantly correlated with the severity of the speech impairment.

Conclusions These results suggest that CAS involves a symptom complex that not only comprises errors of sequencing speech movements but implicates comorbidity in nonverbal sequential functioning in most children with CAS.

Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). This research was made possible by NWO Foundation for Behavioral and Educational Sciences Grant 360-89-002 awarded to Lian Nijland and NWO-VENI Grant 275-89-016 awarded to Hayo Terband.
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