List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2015
List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Li Sheng
    University of Texas–Austin
  • Courtney T. Byrd
    University of Texas–Austin
  • Karla K. McGregor
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Hannah Zimmerman
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Kadee Bludau
    University of Texas–Austin
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Li Sheng: li.sheng@utexas.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Stephanie Stokes
    Associate Editor: Stephanie Stokes×
Article Information
Special Populations / Language Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2015
List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2015, Vol. 58, 336-344. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-13-0143
History: Received June 7, 2013 , Revised October 16, 2013 , Accepted November 12, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2015, Vol. 58, 336-344. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-13-0143
History: Received June 7, 2013; Revised October 16, 2013; Accepted November 12, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD).

Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes.

Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways.

Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant 1R01DC011742-01A1 awarded to Karla McGregor. We wish to thank the participants for volunteering their time and Katie Maddox, Kaitlyn Lago, Brooke Lauper, Kellie Voss, Megan Blau, and Nichole Eden for assistance with data collection and data analyses.
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