The Role of Sentence Position, Allomorph, and Morpheme Type on Accurate Use of s-Related Morphemes by Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Purpose Production accuracy of s-related morphemes was examined in 3-year-olds with mild-to-severe hearing loss, focusing on perceptibility, articulation, and input frequency. Method Morphemes with /s/, /z/, and /ɪz/ as allomorphs (plural, possessive, third-person singular –s, and auxiliary and copula “is”) were analyzed from language samples gathered from 51 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2015
The Role of Sentence Position, Allomorph, and Morpheme Type on Accurate Use of s-Related Morphemes by Children Who Are Hard of Hearing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Keegan Koehlinger
    Children's Center for Therapy, Iowa City, IA
  • Amanda Owen Van Horne
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Jacob Oleson
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Ryan McCreery
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Mary Pat Moeller
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Amanda Owen Van Horne: amanda-owen-vanhorne@uiowa.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Ann Tyler
    Associate Editor: Ann Tyler×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / International & Global / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2015
The Role of Sentence Position, Allomorph, and Morpheme Type on Accurate Use of s-Related Morphemes by Children Who Are Hard of Hearing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2015, Vol. 58, 396-409. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0134
History: Received May 16, 2014 , Revised August 29, 2014 , Accepted December 3, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2015, Vol. 58, 396-409. doi:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0134
History: Received May 16, 2014; Revised August 29, 2014; Accepted December 3, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose Production accuracy of s-related morphemes was examined in 3-year-olds with mild-to-severe hearing loss, focusing on perceptibility, articulation, and input frequency.

Method Morphemes with /s/, /z/, and /ɪz/ as allomorphs (plural, possessive, third-person singular –s, and auxiliary and copula “is”) were analyzed from language samples gathered from 51 children (ages: 2;10 [years;months] to 3;8) who are hard of hearing (HH), all of whom used amplification. Articulation was assessed via the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition, and monomorphemic word final /s/ and /z/ production. Hearing was measured via better ear pure tone average, unaided Speech Intelligibility Index, and aided sensation level of speech at 4 kHz.

Results Unlike results reported for children with normal hearing, the group of children who are HH correctly produced the /ɪz/ allomorph more than /s/ and /z/ allomorphs. Relative accuracy levels for morphemes and sentence positions paralleled those of children with normal hearing. The 4-kHz sensation level scores (but not the better ear pure tone average or Speech Intelligibility Index), the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation–Second Edition, and word final s/z use all predicted accuracy.

Conclusions Both better hearing and higher articulation scores are associated with improved morpheme production, and better aided audibility in the high frequencies and word final production of s/z are particularly critical for morpheme acquisition in children who are HH.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants 5 R01 DC009560-03 and 2 R01 DC009560-06 (coprincipal investigators, J. Bruce Tomblin, University of Iowa, and Mary Pat Moeller, Boys Town National Research Hospital). The content of this project is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders or the National Institutes of Health. Additional funding was awarded to Amanda Owen Van Horne for the support of Keegan M. Koehlinger by the Iowa Center for Research by Undergraduates Fellows program at the University of Iowa. Portions of this article were submitted as Keegan Koehlinger's undergraduate honors thesis and presented at a preconference at the Society for Research on Child Development in Montreal in 2011 and Symposium on Research in Child Language Disorders in Madison, Wisconsin, in 2011, 2012, and 2014. The following people provided support, assistance, and feedback at various points in the project: Kristen Adrian, Rick Arenas, Colleen Fitzgerald, Pam Hadley, Shan-ju Lin, Marlea O'Brien, Gwyneth Rost, Merry Spratford, J. Bruce Tomblin, and Beth Walker. Special thanks go to the examiners at the University of Iowa, Boys Town National Research Hospital, and University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and the families and children who participated in the research.
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