Control and Prediction Components of Movement Planning in Stuttering Versus Nonstuttering Adults Purpose Stuttering individuals show speech and nonspeech sensorimotor deficiencies. To perform accurate movements, the sensorimotor system needs to generate appropriate control signals and correctly predict their sensory consequences. Using a reaching task, we examined the integrity of these control and prediction components separately for movements unrelated to the speech motor ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2014
Control and Prediction Components of Movement Planning in Stuttering Versus Nonstuttering Adults
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ayoub Daliri
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Roman A. Prokopenko
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • J. Randall Flanagan
    Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • Ludo Max
    University of Washington, Seattle
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Ludo Max: LudoMax@uw.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2014
Control and Prediction Components of Movement Planning in Stuttering Versus Nonstuttering Adults
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2014, Vol. 57, 2131-2141. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0333
History: Received December 16, 2013 , Revised May 29, 2014 , Accepted August 28, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2014, Vol. 57, 2131-2141. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0333
History: Received December 16, 2013; Revised May 29, 2014; Accepted August 28, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose Stuttering individuals show speech and nonspeech sensorimotor deficiencies. To perform accurate movements, the sensorimotor system needs to generate appropriate control signals and correctly predict their sensory consequences. Using a reaching task, we examined the integrity of these control and prediction components separately for movements unrelated to the speech motor system.

Method Nine stuttering and 9 nonstuttering adults made fast reaching movements to visual targets while sliding an object under the index finger. To quantify control, we determined initial direction error and end point error. To quantify prediction, we calculated the correlation between vertical and horizontal forces applied to the object—an index of how well vertical force (preventing slip) anticipated direction-dependent variations in horizontal force (moving the object).

Results Directional and end point error were significantly larger for the stuttering group. Both groups performed similarly in scaling vertical force with horizontal force.

Conclusions The stuttering group's reduced reaching accuracy suggests limitations in generating control signals for voluntary movements, even for nonorofacial effectors. Typical scaling of vertical force with horizontal force suggests an intact ability to predict the consequences of planned control signals. Stuttering may be associated with generalized deficiencies in planning control signals rather than predicting the consequences of those signals.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported in part by Grants R01DC007603 and P30DC004661 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and Grant DF05009 from the Patrick and Catherine Weldon Donaghue Medical Research Foundation. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, the National Institutes of Health, or the Donaghue Foundation.
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