What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms Over 24 Hours Purpose This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2014
What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms Over 24 Hours
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karla K. McGregor
    The University of Iowa
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Karla K. McGregor: karla-mcgregor@uiowa.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Kristine Lundgren
    Associate Editor: Kristine Lundgren×
Article Information
Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2014
What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms Over 24 Hours
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1842-1850. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0273
History: Received October 3, 2013 , Revised March 6, 2014 , Accepted May 12, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1842-1850. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0273
History: Received October 3, 2013; Revised March 6, 2014; Accepted May 12, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms.

Method Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all, thus varying the amount and timing of retrieval experience.

Results Recognition accuracy was stable and speed improved over the 24-hr period. But these manifestations of consolidation did not depend on interim retrieval experience; in fact, the 2-hr interim test interfered with improvements in speed. In contrast, the number of word forms recalled increased only with interim retrieval experiences, and the 12-hr interim test was more advantageous to recall than the 2-hr test.

Conclusions After a word form is encoded, it can become stronger with time. Retrieval experience can also strengthen the trace, but, if retrieval occurs when the memory is still labile, it can be disruptive. This complex interplay between retrieval experience and time holds implications for measuring learning outcomes and for scheduling practice in classrooms and clinics.

Acknowledgments
Thanks goes to Nichole Eden for data collection, Tim Arbisi-Kelm for data extraction, Mark Eric Dyken for interpretation of the polysomnography recordings, and Prahlad Gupta for comments on an earlier draft. This work was supported by Grant R21 DC009292-02S1 and an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 extension, both from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
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