Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory During Verbal Learning After Traumatic Brain Injury Purpose Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2014
Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory During Verbal Learning After Traumatic Brain Injury
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Pradeep Ramanathan
    University of Connecticut, Storrs
  • Mary R. T. Kennedy
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • Chad J. Marsolek
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Pradeep Ramanathan: ramanathan@uconn.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Robert Marshall
    Associate Editor: Robert Marshall×
Article Information
Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Traumatic Brain Injury / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2014
Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory During Verbal Learning After Traumatic Brain Injury
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1817-1830. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0204
History: Received July 31, 2013 , Revised March 7, 2014 , Accepted April 4, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1817-1830. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0204
History: Received July 31, 2013; Revised March 7, 2014; Accepted April 4, 2014

Purpose Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit learning mechanisms are often intact in those with TBI, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether priming and antipriming of immediate and delayed JOLs in individuals with TBI might affect their overconfidence.

Method A standard 3-field masked priming paradigm was combined with a paired-associate learning task with JOLs and administered to individuals with TBI and matched controls (18 per group). In each trial, a subliminal masked stimulus was immediately followed by supraliminal presentation of a word pair for study; participants also made immediate and delayed JOLs, with cued-recall testing 10 min after study and judgment.

Results Antipriming significantly lowered JOLs and overconfidence for both groups, whereas delaying JOLs significantly improved recall for both groups.

Conclusions The results suggest that JOLs may be influenced by subliminal implicit memory. Clinical implications include the possible use of antipriming to reduce overconfidence after brain injury and delaying JOLs to improve recall.

Acknowledgments
This research was made possible by generous funding from the University of Minnesota: a Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, several block grants, a scholarship from the College of Liberal Arts, and the Bryng Bryngelson fund. We also thank the University of Connecticut for its generous support of this research through a Faculty Large Grant. We are grateful to the Minnesota Speech-Language-Hearing Association for its financial contribution. We acknowledge Edward Carney for copious technical assistance throughout the project and Krystal Baumgarten and Deborah Lanza for assistance in psychometric testing. We are grateful to the Brain Injury Associations of Minnesota and Connecticut for assistance in the recruitment of participants.
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