Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification Across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions Purpose The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2014
Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification Across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ralf W. Schlosser
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Rajinder Koul
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
  • Howard Shane
    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA
  • James Sorce
    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Kristofer Brock
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
  • Ashley Harmon
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Dorothy Moerlein
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Emilia Hearn
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Ralf W. Schlosser: R.Schlosser@neu.edu
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts
    Associate Editor: Jenny Roberts×
Article Information
Augmentative & Alternative Communication / Special Populations / Autism Spectrum / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2014
Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification Across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1779-1791. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0193
History: Received July 20, 2013 , Revised December 23, 2013 , Accepted March 23, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2014, Vol. 57, 1779-1791. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0193
History: Received July 20, 2013; Revised December 23, 2013; Accepted March 23, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers.

Method Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label.

Results Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children.

Conclusions Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Acknowledgments
This project was funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), U.S. Department of Education (H133G100187), to Ralf W. Schlosser with a subcontract to Rajinder Koul. The authors, however, bear sole responsibility for the content, and funding by NIDRR does not imply that the opinions expressed in this report are those of the agency. We wish to thank the following day care centers for allowing us to collect data at their sites. Greater Boston, MA: Center for Development of Children of Dover, Children's Corner of Norwood, Cornerstone Campus Preschool of Quincy, Dover Nursery School of Dover, Russel J. Call Children's Center (Boston), Wayland Goddard School of Wayland, Wellesley Community Childen's Center (Wellesley); Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Child Development Research Center, Westminster Presbyterian Preschool/Daycare, All Saints Episcopal School.
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