Development of a Self-Report Tool to Evaluate Hearing Aid Outcomes Among Chinese Speakers Purpose This article reports on the development of a self-report tool—the Chinese Hearing Aid Outcomes Questionnaire (CHAOQ)—to evaluate hearing aid outcomes among Chinese speakers. Method There were 4 phases to construct the CHAOQ and evaluate its psychometric properties. First, items were selected to evaluate a range of culturally relevant ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2014
Development of a Self-Report Tool to Evaluate Hearing Aid Outcomes Among Chinese Speakers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lena L. N. Wong
    University of Hong Kong, China
  • Na Hang
    University of Hong Kong, China
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Lena L. N. Wong: llnwong@hku.hk
  • Editor: Craig Champlin
    Editor: Craig Champlin×
  • Associate Editor: Chang Liu
    Associate Editor: Chang Liu×
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / International & Global / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2014
Development of a Self-Report Tool to Evaluate Hearing Aid Outcomes Among Chinese Speakers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2014, Vol. 57, 1548-1563. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-H-13-0024
History: Received January 30, 2013 , Revised June 18, 2013 , Accepted January 1, 2014
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2014, Vol. 57, 1548-1563. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-H-13-0024
History: Received January 30, 2013; Revised June 18, 2013; Accepted January 1, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose This article reports on the development of a self-report tool—the Chinese Hearing Aid Outcomes Questionnaire (CHAOQ)—to evaluate hearing aid outcomes among Chinese speakers.

Method There were 4 phases to construct the CHAOQ and evaluate its psychometric properties. First, items were selected to evaluate a range of culturally relevant outcomes. These procedures provided evidence for face and content validity. Second, items with inappropriate psychometric properties were eliminated. Items related to listening performance were subjected to exploratory factor analysis to identify the factor structure, which was later confirmed via a confirmatory factor analysis in Phase III. These procedures also ensured content and discriminant validity. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated, and normative data were obtained. Finally, test–retest reliability was evaluated, and construct validity was established by comparing results with corresponding items from the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids.

Results The final 26-item CHAOQ contains (a) 3 scales evaluating speech understanding in situations in which communication is relatively more difficult or easy or includes reduced listening cues; (b) a scale evaluating listening comfort; (c) a scale measuring negative responses; and (d) an item measuring overall satisfaction.

Conclusion The CHAOQ possesses good reliability and validity.

Acknowledgments
We are indebted to Sha Liu, Bo Liu, and Haihong Liu from Beijing Tongren Hospital; Dingxiang Feng and Kai Cheng from GN ReSound; Ming Lan and his staff from Digitone; Xiaoming Li and audiologists from Shanghai Eye and ENT Hospital; Jirong Duan from Siemens; Weihong Cao from Oticon; and Ping Kay Kam from Phonak for their help in questionnaire design and data collection. We are also grateful to Nikki Cheng for her assistance in preparing this article. This research contains work reported by Na Hangin in a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for a master of philosophy degree at the University of Hong Kong.
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