Effortful Pitch Glide: A Potential New Exercise Evaluated by Dynamic MRI Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the effortful pitch glide (EPG) with swallowing using dynamic MRI. The EPG is a combination of a pitch glide and a pharyngeal squeeze maneuver for targeting laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. The authors hypothesized that the EPG would elicit ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2014
Effortful Pitch Glide: A Potential New Exercise Evaluated by Dynamic MRI
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Keri Vasquez Miloro
    Boston University, MA
  • William G. Pearson, Jr.
    Medical College of Georgia, Augusta
  • Susan E. Langmore
    Boston University, MA
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Keri Vasquez Miloro: kav21@bu.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Caryn Easterling
    Associate Editor: Caryn Easterling×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2014
Effortful Pitch Glide: A Potential New Exercise Evaluated by Dynamic MRI
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2014, Vol. 57, 1243-1250. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0168
History: Received June 30, 2013 , Revised December 17, 2013 , Accepted December 31, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2014, Vol. 57, 1243-1250. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0168
History: Received June 30, 2013; Revised December 17, 2013; Accepted December 31, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the effortful pitch glide (EPG) with swallowing using dynamic MRI. The EPG is a combination of a pitch glide and a pharyngeal squeeze maneuver for targeting laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. The authors hypothesized that the EPG would elicit significantly greater structural excursions of anterior hyoid, superior hyoid, hyolaryngeal approximation, laryngeal elevation, and lateral pharyngeal wall medialization compared with swallowing.

Method Eleven healthy, young subjects with a mean age of 25 were recruited. The EPG was first taught and verified via laryngoscopy. Then 2-planar (coronal and sagittal) dynamic MRI acquisitions captured 10 repeated swallows and 3 EPGs. Kinematic analyses of minimum and maximum excursion of anatomical landmarks were calculated.

Results Results showed a nonsignificant difference between the 2 tasks for range of excursion with all measured biomechanics except for superior hyoid, where the swallow showed significantly greater excursion. This indicated that swallowing and EPG biomechanics were comparable, lending support for the potential use of the EPG as another nonswallowing exercise.

Conclusion Findings suggest EPG may be an effective exercise to target several important swallowing muscles, especially the long pharyngeal muscles that elevate the larynx and shorten the pharynx in swallowing.

Acknowledgments
Completion of this project was supported in part by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant Number F31DC011705, awarded to William G. Pearson Jr. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders or the National Institutes of Health.
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