Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts During a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol PurposeTo examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia.MethodFifty-four vocally healthy female adults between the ages of 18 and 35 ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2012
Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts During a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Maria Dietrich
    University of Kentucky, Lexington
  • Katherine Verdolini Abbott
    University of Pittsburgh, PA
  • Correspondence to Maria Dietrich: maria.dietrich@uky.edu
  • Editor: Anne Smith
    Editor: Anne Smith×
  • Associate Editor: Mahalakshmi Sivasankar
    Associate Editor: Mahalakshmi Sivasankar×
Article Information
Speech
Article   |   June 01, 2012
Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts During a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2012, Vol. 55, 973-987. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0344)
History: Received December 8, 2010 , Revised April 14, 2011 , Accepted October 25, 2011
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2012, Vol. 55, 973-987. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0344)
History: Received December 8, 2010; Revised April 14, 2011; Accepted October 25, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 19

PurposeTo examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia.

MethodFifty-four vocally healthy female adults between the ages of 18 and 35 years were divided into 2 groups: introversion (n = 27) and extraversion (n = 27). All participants completed a psychological stress reactivity experiment. Before, during, and after the stressor (public speaking), participants were assessed on extralaryngeal muscle activity (surface electromyography: submental, infrahyoid; control site: tibialis anterior), perceived vocal effort, and vocal acoustics (fundamental frequency and intensity).

ResultsParticipants in the introversion group exhibited significantly greater infrahyoid muscle activity throughout the protocol and during perceived stress than participants in the extraversion group. For both groups, perceived vocal effort significantly increased during stress, and acoustic measures significantly decreased. Infrahyoid muscle activity during the stress phase was significantly correlated with introversion and Voice Handicap Index scores but not with vocal effort scores.

ConclusionsThe data provided evidence of distinct differences in extralaryngeal behavior between introverts and extraverts. The findings are consistent with the trait theory of voice disorders (Roy & Bless, 2000).

Acknowledgments
Funding was provided by the University of Pittsburgh, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (SHRS) Research Development Fund, to Maria Dietrich and Katherine Verdolini Abbott. This study was completed at the University of Pittsburgh in partial fulfillment of the first author's doctoral dissertation requirements. We thank Tanja Schultz and Szu-Chen (Stan) Jou from Carnegie Mellon University and Technische Universität Karlsruhe for providing the sEMG recording hardware and software, the Pittsburgh Mind Body Center for providing the Mindware Technologies EMG software, and the following individuals for assisting with data collection: Rebecca Bird, Caitlin Hughes, Nicole Li, Chaya Nanjundeswaran, Rina Patel, April Scott, Adrianna Shembel, Michelle Sokolsky, Shuba Sriram, and Katherine White.
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