Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children With Language and Reading Impairment PurposeThis study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically developing (TD) children who differed ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2012
Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children With Language and Reading Impairment
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Judith Rispens
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication
  • Anne Baker
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication
  • Correspondence to Judith Rispens: J.E.Rispens@uva.nl
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse
    Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse×
Article Information
Language
Article   |   June 01, 2012
Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children With Language and Reading Impairment
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2012, Vol. 55, 683-694. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0263)
History: Received September 23, 2010 , Revised March 17, 2011 , Accepted September 3, 2011
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2012, Vol. 55, 683-694. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0263)
History: Received September 23, 2010; Revised March 17, 2011; Accepted September 3, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 22

PurposeThis study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically developing (TD) children who differed in age.

MethodNWR, digit span, vocabulary, and word and nonword discrimination were tested in 2 groups of TD children: one group matched on chronological age (CA TD group: n = 41, mean age = 7;8 [months;years]), and one language age–matched control group (LA TD group: n = 16, mean age = 5;8). Also, 10 children with SLI, 14 children with RI, and 23 children with SLI and RI (hereafter, SLI + RI) participated and were matched to the age of the CA TD group.

ResultsFor the TD children, NWR was predicted by discrimination, digit span, and age. The interaction between discrimination ability and age was also significant. Children with SLI + RI were significantly impaired on NWR compared with all other groups. A regression analysis, including the CA TD group and the children with SLI and/or RI, showed that digit span, discrimination ability, and group (SLI + RI) contributed significantly to NWR.

ConclusionsPhonological short-term memory and phonological representations both significantly contribute to NWR. The predictive strength of the quality of phonological representations changes during development.

Acknowledgments
We thank all children and their parents for participating in this study, and we thank the staff at their schools for their help. Furthermore, we thank Wendy Boelhouwer, Christa Kerkhof, and Martine Jong for their assistance in collecting the data. Finally, we thank Elise de Bree and Marcel Giezen for their comments on earlier versions of this article and Titia Benders for her help with the statistical analysis.
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