Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age PurposeEffects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers.MethodParticipants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers. ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2014
Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ishara Ramkissoon
    University of South Alabama
  • Brenda L. Beverly
    University of South Alabama
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Ishara Ramkissoon: ramkissoon@southalabama.edu
  • Editor: Craig Champlin
    Editor: Craig Champlin×
  • Associate Editor: Paul Abbas
    Associate Editor: Paul Abbas×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Special Populations / Older Adults & Aging / Hearing
Research Article   |   February 01, 2014
Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 271-281. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0309)
History: Received September 25, 2012 , Revised January 30, 2013 , Accepted April 28, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 271-281. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0309)
History: Received September 25, 2012; Revised January 30, 2013; Accepted April 28, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

PurposeEffects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers.

MethodParticipants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers. Monaural, 2-channel AMLRs were acquired from Fz and Cz electrodes with 3 stimuli (clicks, 500 Hz, and 3000 Hz).

ResultsGroup differences included significantly higher V–Na amplitude in young adults and shorter Pb latency in older nonsmokers. Young smokers had a significantly higher Nb–Pb amplitude and shorter Nb latency than other groups. Toneburst stimuli yielded significantly longer V, Na, and Pa latencies compared to clicks. Pb latency was shorter at Fz than at Cz. Relative amplitudes were significantly higher at Fz than at Cz overall; Pa–Nb and Nb–Pb were significantly lower for 3000 Hz than for 500 Hz and clicks.

ConclusionsResponses from young smokers revealed a higher amplitude and shorter latency for later AMLR waves, reflecting an arousal effect of smoking in cortical and subcortical generators. AMLR differences in older adults may be due to age-related neurochemical changes in the central nervous system. Stimulus and electrode differences plus smoking and aging effects can guide neurodiagnostic AMLR protocols, especially in young adult smokers.

Acknowledgments
The project was partially supported by funds from the University of South Alabama Research Council. We gratefully acknowledge Surenderan Naiker for creation of the waveform figures; Michael D. Carpenter for assistance in data collection; and graduate students Fran Battles, Katie Berry, and Sommer Brock, for assistance with participant recruitment and data management.
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