Effects of Error Experience When Learning to Simulate Hypernasality PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of error experience on the acquisition of hypernasal speech.MethodTwenty-eight healthy participants were asked to simulate hypernasality in either an errorless learning condition (in which the possibility for errors was limited) or an errorful learning condition (in which the possibility for ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2013
Effects of Error Experience When Learning to Simulate Hypernasality
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Andus W.-K. Wong
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • Andy C.-Y. Tse
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • Estella P.-M. Ma
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • Tara L. Whitehill
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • Rich S. W. Masters
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Andus W.-K. Wong: draw@hku.hk
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Kate Bunton
    Associate Editor: Kate Bunton×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Article
Research Article   |   December 01, 2013
Effects of Error Experience When Learning to Simulate Hypernasality
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2013, Vol. 56, 1764-1773. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0143)
History: Received April 27, 2012 , Revised November 2, 2012 , Accepted April 8, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2013, Vol. 56, 1764-1773. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0143)
History: Received April 27, 2012; Revised November 2, 2012; Accepted April 8, 2013

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of error experience on the acquisition of hypernasal speech.

MethodTwenty-eight healthy participants were asked to simulate hypernasality in either an errorless learning condition (in which the possibility for errors was limited) or an errorful learning condition (in which the possibility for errors was not limited). The nasality level of the participants' speech was measured with a nasometer and reflected by nasalance scores (in percentages). Errorless learners practiced producing hypernasal speech with a threshold nasalance score of 10% at the beginning, gradually increasing to a threshold of 50% at the end. The same set of threshold targets were presented to errorful learners but in a reversed order. Errors were defined by the proportion of speech with a nasalance score below the threshold. A retention test and a transfer test were administered.

ResultsRelative to errorful learners, errorless learners displayed fewer errors and a higher mean nasalance score during acquisition. Furthermore, errorless learners outperformed errorful learners in both retention and transfer tests.

ConclusionThe results suggest that errorless learning is more effective than errorful learning in acquiring a novel speech motor task that involves manipulation of the nasality level of speech.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the Faculty (Education) Research Fund (22nd round) from the University of Hong Kong to the first author, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong to the third author (Project Code 201011159146), and the Sciences of Learning Strategic Research Theme of the University of Hong Kong. Portions of the data reported in this article were presented at the Acoustics 2012 Hong Kong Conference and Exhibition (see Wong, Whitehill, Ma, & Masters, 2012, for the abstract).
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