Vocal Function and Upper Airway Thermoregulation in Five Different Environmental Conditions PurposePhonation threshold pressure and perceived phonatory effort were hypothesized to increase and upper airway temperature to decrease following exposure to cold and/or dry air. Greater changes were expected with mouth versus nose breathing.MethodIn a within-participant repeated measures design, 15 consented participants (7 men, 8 women) completed 20-min duration trials to ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2014
Vocal Function and Upper Airway Thermoregulation in Five Different Environmental Conditions
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mary J. Sandage
    Auburn University, Auburn, AL
  • Nadine P. Connor
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • David D. Pascoe
    Auburn University, Auburn, AL
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Mary J. Sandage: sandamj@auburn.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Kate Bunton
    Associate Editor: Kate Bunton×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Research Article   |   February 01, 2014
Vocal Function and Upper Airway Thermoregulation in Five Different Environmental Conditions
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 16-25. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/13-0015
History: Received January 16, 2013 , Revised April 11, 2013 , Accepted May 22, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 16-25. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/13-0015
History: Received January 16, 2013; Revised April 11, 2013; Accepted May 22, 2013

PurposePhonation threshold pressure and perceived phonatory effort were hypothesized to increase and upper airway temperature to decrease following exposure to cold and/or dry air. Greater changes were expected with mouth versus nose breathing.

MethodIn a within-participant repeated measures design, 15 consented participants (7 men, 8 women) completed 20-min duration trials to allow for adequate thermal equilibration for both nose and mouth breathing in 5 different environments: 3 temperatures (°C) matched for relative humidity (% RH), cold (15 °C, 40% RH), thermally neutral (25 °C, 40% RH), and hot (35 °C, 40% RH); and 2 temperatures with variable relative humidity to match vapor pressure for the neutral environment (25 °C, 40% RH), cold (15 °C, 74% RH) and hot (35 °C, 23% RH). Following each equilibration trial, measures were taken in this order: upper airway temperature (transnasal thermistor probe), phonation threshold pressure, and perceived phonatory effort.

ResultsData were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, and no significant differences were established.

ConclusionsThe study hypotheses were not supported. Findings suggest that the upper airway is tightly regulated for temperature when challenged by a realistic range of temperature and relative humidity environments. This is the first study of its kind to include measurement of upper airway temperature in conjunction with measures of vocal function.

Acknowledgments
The work presented in this article was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Grant 1F31DC010946-01A1. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIDCD or the National Institutes of Health. The generosity of KayPENTAX is also acknowledged for their loan of equipment used to collect data.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access