Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children With Fragile X Syndrome PurposeThis research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent–child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome through age 9 years.MethodFifty-five mother–child dyads were ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2014
Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children With Fragile X Syndrome
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Nancy Brady
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Steven F. Warren
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Kandace Fleming
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Juliana Keller
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Audra Sterling
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Nancy Brady: nbrady@ku.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting×
Article Information
Development / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Autism Spectrum / Language
Research Article   |   February 01, 2014
Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children With Fragile X Syndrome
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 212-226. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0341)
History: Received October 31, 2012 , Revised March 28, 2013 , Accepted May 24, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 212-226. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0341)
History: Received October 31, 2012; Revised March 28, 2013; Accepted May 24, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 10

PurposeThis research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent–child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome through age 9 years.

MethodFifty-five mother–child dyads were followed longitudinally when children were between 2 and 10 years of age. Measures of maternal responsivity and child vocabulary were obtained at regular intervals starting at age 2.9 years. Sustained responsivity was indicated by the average responsivity measured over Observations 2–5. Responsivity at the 1st time period, autism symptoms, and cognitive development were used as control variables.

ResultsAfter controlling for development and autism symptoms, the authors found significant effects for sustained responsivity on receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and the rate of different words children produced through age 9.

ConclusionsMaternal responsivity, which is typically a variable of interest during early childhood, continues to be a significant variable, predicting vocabulary development through the middle childhood period. Thus, responsivity is a potential target for language interventions through this age period.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grants P30 HD003110 and P30 HD002528. We wish to thank Michaela Beals, Alyssa Lokits, Abbey Campbell, and Ben Hase, who assisted with data collection; and the families who participated in this research.
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