Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication Between Children With Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers Purpose To investigate gaze behavior during communication between children with hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Method Ten HI–NH and 10 NH–NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Using verbal event (questions, statements, back channeling, ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2014
Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication Between Children With Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Olof Sandgren
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • Richard Andersson
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • Joost van de Weijer
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • Kristina Hansson
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • Birgitta Sahlén
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Olof Sandgren: olof.sandgren@med.lu.se
  • Editor: Rhea Paul
    Editor: Rhea Paul×
  • Associate Editor: Elizabeth Crais
    Associate Editor: Elizabeth Crais×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2014
Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication Between Children With Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2014, Vol. 57, 942-951. doi:10.1044/2013_JSLHR-L-12-0333
History: Received October 23, 2012 , Revised April 19, 2013 , Accepted September 24, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2014, Vol. 57, 942-951. doi:10.1044/2013_JSLHR-L-12-0333
History: Received October 23, 2012; Revised April 19, 2013; Accepted September 24, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Purpose To investigate gaze behavior during communication between children with hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers.

Method Ten HI–NH and 10 NH–NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Using verbal event (questions, statements, back channeling, and silence) as the predictor variable, group characteristics in gaze behavior were expressed with Kaplan-Meier survival functions (estimating time to gaze-to-partner) and odds ratios (comparing number of verbal events with and without gaze-to-partner). Analyses compared the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, mean better ear pure-tone average = 33.0 dB HL; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years).

Results Log-rank tests revealed significant group differences in survival distributions for all verbal events, reflecting a higher probability of gaze to the partner's face for participants with HI. Expressed as odds ratios (OR), participants with HI displayed greater odds for gaze-to-partner (ORs ranging between 1.2 and 2.1) during all verbal events.

Conclusions The results show an increased probability for listeners with HI to gaze at the speaker's face in association with verbal events. Several explanations for the finding are possible, and implications for further research are discussed.

Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Linnaeus Centre Thinking in Time: Cognition, Communication and Learning, financed by the Swedish Research Council (Grant 349-2007-8695). We would also like to thank Jonas Brännström for valuable comments in the preparation of the manuscript and express our sincerest gratitude to all participants.
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