Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability PurposeThe study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities?MethodForty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2014
Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Nancy Tye-Murray
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
  • Sandra Hale
    Washington University, St. Louis, MO
  • Brent Spehar
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
  • Joel Myerson
    Washington University, St. Louis, MO
  • Mitchell S. Sommers
    Washington University, St. Louis, MO
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Nancy Tye-Murray: murrayn@ent.wustl.edu
  • Editor: Craig Champlin
    Editor: Craig Champlin×
  • Associate Editor: Emily Tobey
    Associate Editor: Emily Tobey×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Audiologic / Aural Rehabilitation / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Hearing
Research Article   |   April 01, 2014
Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2014, Vol. 57, 556-565. doi:10.1044/2013_JSLHR-H-12-0273
History: Received August 29, 2012 , Revised March 19, 2013 , Accepted July 7, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2014, Vol. 57, 556-565. doi:10.1044/2013_JSLHR-H-12-0273
History: Received August 29, 2012; Revised March 19, 2013; Accepted July 7, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 10

PurposeThe study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities?

MethodForty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4 lipreading instruments plus measures of perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic abilities.

ResultsFor both groups, lipreading performance improved with age on all 4 measures of lipreading, with the HL group performing better than the NH group. Scores from the 4 measures loaded strongly on a single principal component. Only age, hearing status, and visuospatial working memory were significant predictors of lipreading performance.

ConclusionsResults showed that children's lipreading ability is not fixed but rather improves between 7 and 14 years of age. The finding that children with HL lipread better than those with NH suggests experience plays an important role in the development of this ability. In addition to age and hearing status, visuospatial working memory predicts lipreading performance in children, just as it does in adults. Future research on the developmental time-course of lipreading could permit interventions and pedagogies to be targeted at periods in which improvement is most likely to occur.

Acknowledgments
The development of the new instruments used in this work was supported under the auspices of the National Institutes of Health Grant #RO1DC008964-01A1. We thank Elizabeth Mauzé and Catherine Schroy, the project's audiologists, for their assistance throughout the conduct of this work and Emily Yonker for her artwork.
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